The Periodic Table of Elements

advertisement
The Periodic Table of Elements
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table is Divided into
Sections by Jagged Red Line!
• Metals – left of red line
• Nonmetals – right of red line
• Metalloids – touch TWO
SIDES of red line
–
–
–
–
Notice there are Exceptions:
Hydrogen
Aluminum
Polonium
• Metals
• Nonmetals
• Metalloids
Color-code your periodic table!
Metals
Nonmetals
Metalloids
Time for a Lab!!
The Element Survey
Properties of…
Which is….
Shiny or Dull?
Bendable or Brittle?
Metals
Nonmetals
Shiny (when
polished)
Bendable
Dull
Solids
Powders,
Liquids, Gases
Poor
Conductors
Solids or Powders/Liquids?
Good or Poor Conductors?
Good
Conductors
Brittle
The Periodic Table has rows and
columns!
• The rows are called
PERIODS.
Family
• The columns are called
Period GROUPS or
FAMILIES.
Periods and Families are Numbered!
1 2
• Renumber your Families…
• *Instructions in class!
1
2
3
• What element is found in
Group2, Period 3?
• Magnesium
Groups/Families are Given Names
• Group 1
– Alkali Metals
• Group 2
– Alkaline Earth Metals
• Groups between 2 & 3
– Transition Metals
• Group 3
– Boron Family
• Group 4
– Carbon Family
• Group 5
– Nitrogen Family
• Group 6
– Chalcogens
• Group 7
– Halogens
• Group 8
– Noble Gases
Elements are grouped in FAMILIES
because they are RELATED!
• DEMO –
– Sodium
– Lithium
• Both react with water!
• TIME FOR A LAB!
The Periodic Table Lists ELEMENTS!!
• Each element has a
square with information
in it.
• Name
• Symbol
• Atomic NUMBER
(number in upper righthand corner)
• Atomic MASS (bottom)
Elements are IN ORDER by
Atomic Number!
• Two rows at bottom
– Lanthanide Series
– Actinide Series
• They’re pulled out so
the table isn’t so wide.
• Why is the atomic
number so great?
The Atomic NUMBER tells you
the NUMBER OF PROTONS!
• NUMBER OF PROTONS =
NUMBER OF ELECTRONS
How many protons are in an atom
of Silver?
47
How many electrons?
47
So What Does the Atomic MASS tell
you?
Atomic Mass
What is the Atomic MASS of an
atom of Silver?
108 (round up)
How many NEUTRONS are in
one atom of Silver??
Mass – Protons = Neutrons
108 – 47 = 61
• The Atomic MASS is the
MASS of the atom!
• What is the HEAVIEST
part of the atom?
• Protons & Neutrons
(Electrons are nearly
weightless)
• So, the MASS is the SUM
of protons and neutrons.
Let’s Practice A Few…
• How many protons,
electrons, and neutrons are
in ONE atom of Helium?
• Protons
2
• Electrons
2
• Neutrons
2
(4 – 2 = 2)
What about for an atom of…
• Platinum?
• Protons
78
• Electrons
78
• Neutrons
117 (195 – 78 = 117)
How about…
• Uranium?
• Protons
92
• Electrons
92
• Neutrons
146 (238 – 92 = 146)
Can You Do a Tricky One?
• You found a sample of an
element! With some careful
testing, you determine there are
18 protons in each atom of the
sample. What element did you
find?
Argon!
• So, the number of protons (&
electrons) DEFINES an element.
Review
• Why is the Periodic Table
shaped so funny?
• In order by increasing
Atomic Number
• Families
• Metals/Nonmetals/Metalloi
ds
• Bottom 2 rows pulled out
• Space below Hydrogen
• Calculate protons,
neutrons, & electrons for
Lithium.
Download
Related flashcards

Sulfur compounds

48 cards

Magnesium compounds

47 cards

Nitrogen compounds

28 cards

Bromine compounds

23 cards

Nickel compounds

26 cards

Create Flashcards