States of Matter:Gas Laws

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States of Matter
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
The Gas Laws
Phase Changes
Mixtures
Solutions
Substances dissolved in a homogeneous mixture.
Mixtures
Suspensions
a heterogeneous mixture that separates into
layers over time.
Mixtures
Colloids
contains some particles that are intermediate in
size between the small particles in a solution and
the larger particles in a suspension.
Do not separate into layers
States of Matter
Solids
Definite Shape and Volume
Very little Kinetic movement between atoms
States of Matter
Liquids
Definite volume, but takes shape of container
some kinetic movement of atoms
States of matter
Gases
No definite size or shape
Lots of kinetic movement
The Gas Laws
Pressure
the result of a force distributed over an area.
Collisions between particles of a gas and the
walls of the container cause the pressure in a
closed container of gas.
The Gas Laws
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
partial pressure of a gas - the pressure a gas
would exert if it were alone in the container.
The sum of the partial pressures is equal to the
total pressure of the container.
Ptotal= P1+P2+P3
Gas Laws
Factors that affect Gas Pressure
Temperature (In Kelvin)
Volume
Number of particles
Charles’s Law
The volume of a gas is Directly proportional to its
temperature in Kelvins
V1=V2
T1 T2
Boyle’s Law
The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its
pressure.
P1V2=P1V2
Combined Gas Law
Describes the relationship between temperature,
volume and pressure of a gas.
P1V1=P2V2
T1
T2
Phase Changes
A phase change is the reversible physical change
that occurs when a substance changes from one
state of matter to another
Phase Changes
• There are 6 common phase changes
• Melting
• Freezing
• vaporization
• condensation
• Sublimation
• deposition
Phase Change
• The temperature of a substance does not change
during a phase change.
Phase Changes
• Energy is either absorbed or released during a
phase change
• Endothermic- system absorbs energy
• Heat of Fusion
• Exothermic- system loses energy to the
surroundings.
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