Chapter 2 Notes - Richmond Heights Schools

Chemistry is the study of
Matter and the transformation
It can undergo.
Matter is anything that
Occupies space.
It is the stuff that makes up
All things.
An element is a substance that cannot
Be separated or broken down into
Simpler substances by chemical means
An atom is the smallest unit of an element
That maintains the properties of
That element.
A compound is a substance made from
Atoms of two or more different
Elements that are chemically combined.
A molecule is the smallest unit of a
Substance that keeps all of the
Physical and chemical properties
Of that substance.
A pure substance is a sample of matter,
Either a single element or a
Single compound, that has definite
Chemical and physical properties.
A mixture is a combination of two or
More substances that are NOT
Chemically combined.
A mixture where everything is evenly
Distributed is called homogeneous.
A mixture that is NOT evenly distributed
Is called a heterogeneous mixture.
A chemical formula is a combination
Of chemical symbols and numbers
To represent a substance.
Some properties of matter, such as
Color and shape, are called
Physical properties.
Some physical properties are:
Mass, volume and Density.
An easily observed physical property
Is its state: solid, liquid or gas.
Melting point is the temperature and
Pressure at which a solid
Becomes a liquid.
Boiling point is the temperature
And pressure at which a liquid
Becomes a gas.
Solids, liquids and
gases are matter, so
they all have density.
 Density is a property of material
independent of quantity or shape.
10.1 Density
 The units used for
density depend on
whether the
substance is solid
or liquid.
 For liquids use
units of grams
per milliliter
 For solids use
density in units of
g/cm3 or kg/m3.
10.1 Determining Density
To find the density of a
material, you need to know
the mass and volume of a
solid sample of the
1. Mass is measured with a
balance or scale.
2. Use the displacement
method or calculate the
Solving Problems
A solid wax candle has a volume of 1,700
The candle has a mass of 1,500 g.
What is the density of the candle?
§ 1,500 g ÷ 1,700 mL = 0.8823529 g/mL
Chemical property is a property of
Matter that describes a substance’s
Ability to participate is chemical reactions.
Reactivity is the ability of a substance
To combine chemically with
Another substance.
Flammability is the ability of a
Substance to react in the presence
Of oxygen and burn when
Exposed to a flame.
There are 2 kinds of changes for matter
A physical change is any change in
the size, shape, or phase of matter in
which the identity of a substance
does not change.
For example, when water is frozen, it
changes from a liquid to a solid.
Any change that transforms
one substance into a different
substance is called a chemical
Iron reacts with oxygen
to form iron oxide.
Ex. If you leave a nail
outside, it rusts.