Problems in Prenatal Development Power Point

Problems in Prenatal
Ectopic Pregnancy
 Instead of moving
into the uterus,
the fertilized egg
continues to
develop in the
fallopian tube.
 MISCARRIAGE: The natural ending of a
pregnancy before the embryo or fetus can
survive outside the womb.
 STILLBIRTH: The natural ending of a
pregnancy after 20 weeks.
The loss happens by accident and is
not the fault of the father or mother.
Premature Baby:
 Baby that is born before
their development is
 Pregnancy is less than
36 weeks.
 Weighs less than 5 ½
pounds (last month of
pregnancy is when they
gain most of their
Small size and
incomplete development
can make them
vulnerable to infection,
lung ailments, etc.
Low Birthweight Baby:
 Baby is full term (or near full term) but
weighs less than 5 pounds 8 ounces.
 Usually occurs because of poor prenatal
care (lack of medical care or poor prenatal
 May have more long term issues than a
premature baby.
Age of Viability
The age at which a baby can survive
outside the womb.
Birth Defects:
Birth abnormality that affects the structure or
function of the body.
– Spina Bifida
– Hydrocephalus
– Cerebral Palsy
– Cleft Lip or Palate
– Muscular Dystrophy
– Cystic Fibrosis
– Down Syndrome
Causes of birth defects:
 Environmental causes
– nutritional imbalance of mother’s diet
– any disease or infections the mother may have
during pregnancy
– harmful substances
– outside hazards (radiation)
 Heredity – the result of inheriting the same
defective gene from both parents.
 Errors in baby’s chromosomes, not linked to
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
 3/1,000 babies have
 Mother drinks heavily
during pregnancy
– alcohol interferes
with brain
– heart defects
– poor motor
Cerebral Palsy
 Caused by injury to
the brain before,
during, or after birth.
 A group of disorders
that affect
movement control.
 May include lack of
jerkiness, difficulty
in speech, and
Spina Bifida
Paralysis, hydrocephalus
(fluid on the brain),
bladder and bowel
control difficulties,
learning disabilities,
Spine is developing
depression, latex allergy,
on the outside of the
and social and sexual
issues are all symptoms.
My name is Michael Clancy and I am the photojournalist that photographed Samuel Armas
reaching from his mother's womb and reacting to the touch of his surgeon at twenty-one
weeks in utero during a spina bifida corrective procedure in 1999."
"Out of the corner of my eye I saw the uterus shake, but no one's hands were near it. It was
shaking from within. Suddenly, an entire arm thrust out of the opening, then pulled back until
just a little hand was showing. The doctor reached over and lifted the hand, which reacted
and squeezed the doctor's finger. As if testing for strength, the doctor shook the tiny fist.
Samuel held firm. I took the picture! Wow! It happened so fast that the nurse standing next
to me asked, "What happened?" "The child reached out," I said. "Oh. They do that all the
time," she responded."
Extra fluid that is trapped around the brain.
Without treatment children rarely survive.
Surgical removal of the excess fluid increases
chances of survival and normal
Cleft Lip / Palate
Birth defect that
develops when the face
does not grow together
during prenatal
Muscular Dystrophy
The muscular
dystrophies (MD) are
a group of genetic
(inherited) diseases
characterized by
progressive weakness
and degeneration of
the skeletal muscles
which control movement.
Cystic Fibrosis
 A genetic disease that causes the body to
produce an abnormally thick, sticky mucus,
due to the faulty transport of sodium and
chloride (salt) within cells lining such organs
as the lungs and pancreas to their outer
 Abnormal mucus clogs the lungs and leads
to life-threatening lung infections.
Down Syndrome
 Chromosomal error
– extra chromosome 21 (they don’t know
why there is an extra one)
– mother’s age will increase the risk
– father may also be a carrier
Rh Factor
 Protein substance found in the red blood
cells of 85 % of the population (Rh+).
 Causes a problem for the baby when the
father is Rh+ and the mother is Rh-.
 Rh Disease: type of anemia that destroys
the baby’s red blood cells if mother is Rhand baby is Rh+. Mother receives an
injection to prevent this from happening.
Can birth defects be predicted?
Some hereditary or chromosomal defects can
be predicted before or during pregnancy:
– Genetic Counseling
– Ultrasound
– Amniocentesis
– Chorionic Villus Sampling
Genetic Counseling
 Some defects can be predicted.
 Counseling combines a knowledge of
heredity and birth defects with lab tests.
 Explains options and risk.
 Tells parents in advance the statistical odds
that their children will have a certain disease
or defect.
 Technique using sound waves to make a
video image – sonogram - of an unborn
 Checks for:
health problems
fetal development
skeletal/ organ defects.
 A sample of the amniotic
fluid surrounding an
unborn baby is withdrawn
with a special needle and
tested for indications of
specific birth defects or
other health problems.
 Done when fetus is 14 to
16 weeks old; results
confirmed three to five
weeks later.
Chorionic Villus Sampling
 Procedure for finding
abnormalities in the unborn
by testing a small sample
of the chorion, which will
later develop into the fetal
part of the placenta.
 Used between weeks 8
and 12 of pregnancy.
 Slight risk of infection which
can result in a miscarriage.
Can birth defects be prevented?
 Avoid environmental hazards
 Appropriate exercise
 Proper nutrition
 Nutritional supplements – Folic Acid
– Helps protect your unborn baby against birth defects of the brain
and spinal cord (neural tube defects).
– Take 400 micrograms each day.
Gestational Diabetes
 A form of diabetes that occurs only during
 If left untreated during pregnancy, can
cause baby to be heavier than is normal or
 Can usually be controlled by a special diet
or may require medication.
 Usually goes away after baby is born.
• Characterized by high blood pressure and
the presence of protein in the mother’s urine
• Can prevent the baby from getting enough
blood, which provides oxygen and food.
• May require bed rest, medication, or an
early delivery by C-section.
 A condition that results from not having
enough red blood cells which means there is
not enough iron in the blood.
 Symptoms include fatigue, shortness of
breath, and rapid heartbeat.
Not all birth defects
are preventable,
but you must do
all that is in your
power to protect
your unborn child
from those that
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