CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEWBORN SKIN • At birth, the skin of a normal infant is purplishred in color, then within minutes, the skin pinks up. Blueness of the hands and feet is frequently seen during the early hours of life. • Jaundice. More than half of newborns have some degree of jaundice in the first week of life. In most cases, this condition is due to the immaturity of the liver and is not a threat to the baby. HEAD • Molding refers to the long, narrow, cone-shaped head that results from passage through a tight birth canal. If a vacuum is used to deliver your baby, you may notice more molding and bruising. The head returns to a normal shape in a few days. • "soft spot" is found in the top front part of the head • closes with bone when the baby is between 12 and 18 months of age. EYES • puffy because of pressure on the face during delivery. • producing "crossed-eyes" and jerky uneven movements, are normal. The muscle control of eye movement is still developing. • NOSE • misshapen during the birth process. It may be flattened or pushed to one side. It will look normal by 1 week of age. REPORDUCTIVE ORGANS • Swollen breasts are present during the first week of life in many female and male babies. • swollen genitals • Erections occur commonly in a newborn boy, mean bladder is full and nerves are normal FEET • Feet may be turned in any direction inside the cramped quarters of the womb. HAIR • Lanugo is the fine downy hair that is sometimes present on the back and shoulders. It is more common in premature infants APGAR SCALE • A score is given for each sign at one minute and five minutes after the birth. If there are problems with the baby an additional score is given at 10 minutes. • Cesarean section the baby is additionally assessed at 15 minutes after delivery. • • • • • A-Activity movement of muscles P-Pulse G-Grimace- response to care A-Appearance of skin R-Respiration breathing Sign 0 Points 1 Point 2 Points A Activity (Muscle Tone) Absent Arms and Legs Flexed Active Movement P Pulse Absent Below 100 bpm Above 100 bpm G Grimace (Reflex Irritability during suctioning) No Response Grimace Sneeze, cough, pulls away A Appearance (Skin Color) Blue-gray, pale all over Normal, except for extremities Normal over entire body R Respiration Absent Slow, irregular Good, crying What does the score mean? • A score of 7-10 is considered normal, • 4-7 might require some resuscitative measures • Baby with Apgar of 3 and below requires immediate resuscitation.