Chapter 2 - landman

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The Biological Basis of
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Neurons: The Messengers
Neurons vary in size and shape
All are specialized to receive and transmit
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Myelinated neuron (Fig. 2-1)
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Three Types of Neurons
Sensory (afferent) neurons:
Carry messages from sense organs to the spinal
cord or brain
Motor (efferent) neurons:
Carry messages from the spinal cord or brain to
the muscles and glands
Interneurons (association neurons):
Carry messages from one neuron to another
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Glial Cells
The nervous system also contains glial
cells, or glia, which:
Hold neurons in place, provide nourishment,
and remove waste
Prevent harmful substances from passing
from the bloodstream into the brain
Form the myelin sheath
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The Neural Impulse (Fig. 2-2)
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The Synapse
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Major Neurotransmitters
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Neural Plasticity
The brain has the ability to be changed by
Rosenzweig (1984)
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The Central Nervous System
The nervous system has two parts:
The central nervous system (CNS)
• the brain and spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
• linking all of the body's parts to the CNS
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The Brain
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Four Lobes of Cerebral Cortex
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The Limbic System
The structures listed below are often considered to constitute the limbic system. This
system is involved in olfaction, emotions, learning, and memory. The limbic system was
introduced as a concept by Paul MacLean in 1952 and was long considered the seat of
the emotions. Though some of the structures included in this system are in fact involved
in some emotional responses, we now know that it does not correspond exactly to any of
the multiple emotional systems in the brain.
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Hemispheric Specialization
Cerebrum has two separate cerebral
Connected by the corpus callosum
Split-brain research
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Two Cerebral Hemispheres
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Processing of speech and language
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Tools for Studying the Brain
Microelectrode techniques
Macroelectrode techniques
Structural imaging
Computerized Axial Tomography scanning (CT)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Functional imaging
Electroencephalograph (EEG)
Magnetoencephalography (MEG)
Magnetic Source Imaging (MSI)
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning
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The Spinal Cord
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Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
contains two types of neurons:
afferent neurons
efferent neurons
The PNS is divided into two subsystems
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system
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Autonomic Nervous System
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The Endocrine System
Endocrine Glands:
Tissues that produce and release hormones
Chemical substances released by glands
that help regulate bodily activities
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Endocrine Glands
Pituitary gland
Pineal gland
Thyroid gland
Adrenal glands
Adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla
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Genes, Evolution, and Behavior
Behavioral Genetics
What is the relationship between heredity
and behavior?
Evolutionary Psychology
What are the origins of behavior, and what
adaptive value do they provide?
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
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Patterns of Inheritance
recessive genes
Genotypes and
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Behavior Genetics
A variety of methods are used to study the
contribution of genes
Animal behavior genetics
• Strain studies
• Selection studies
Human behavior genetics
• Family studies
• Twin studies
• Adoption studies
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Average Risk of Schizophrenia Among Biological Relatives of
People with Schizophrenia
Average risk of schizophrenia among
biological relatives (Fig. 2-19)
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Social Implications
New challenges have arisen as a result of
our better understanding of genes.
Modern prenatal screening
Over-simplified reporting of genetic
technologies in mass media
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Evolutionary Psychology
Examining adaptive value of behaviors
from an evolutionary perspective
Common applications
Mate selection
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