nervous system

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NERVOUS
SYSTEM
MCGONIGLE
Intro to Psychology
Nervous System
 Made
up of the spinal cord and the brain
 Neurons
: Nerve cell – the neurons
transmit messages to the spinal cord and
to the brain. ( knee reflex)
3
types of neurons.
Types of Neurons
 Sensory
 Motor
Neurons
Neurons
 Interneurons
neurons.
– found between other
Dendrite
 Branches
that extend from the cell body
to most neurons.
 Receive
information and transmit impulses
toward the cell body. (hot stove/step on
a nail)
Cell Body of Nucleus
 Cell
Body: Contains nucleus, control
center of the cell.
 Regulates production of protein within the
cell.
 Neurons
– limited ability to repair
damaged cells. (Pat’s story)
Axons
 Long
tubelike structure attached to a
neuron
 Transmits
impulses away from cell body +
toward another neuron, muscle cell or
gland.
Spinal Cord
 Long
column of nerve tissue about as
thick as your index finger.
 Generally
speaking – 18” long (c shaped)
 Vertebra - bones that make up back (6 C)
 Connective tissue- spinal meninge – help
protect spinal cord.
Brain
 Cerebrum:
largest and most complex part
of the brain.
 Billions
of neurons– conscious thought,
learning, memory ( long + short)
 Brain
cells – do not reproduce
Left Hemisphere
 Right
side of the body
 Language
 Thinking
 Reasoning
 Analyzing
Right Hemisphere
 Music
Talents ( singing/ playing
instruments)
 Art
( painting/ drawing)
 Spatial
Relationships ( Maps/ Graphs)
4 Lobes of the Brain
 Frontal
Lobe
 Parietal
Lobe
 Occipital
Lobe
 Temporal
Lobe
Frontal Lobe
 All
voluntary movements ( hand/eye
coordination)
 Use
of language – foreign languages.
Parietal Lobe
 Sensory
 Heat
 Cold
 Pain
 Touch
Information :
Occipital Lobe
 Vision
– eyes-
 Optic
nerve
 Do
we see w/ our eyes or brain?
Temporal Lobe
 Hearing
+ Smell (connected- memory)
 Memory
 Thought
 Judgment
Cerebellum
 2nd
largest part of the brain.
 Coordinates
movement of skeletal
muscles (jock/nerd)
 Receives messages from sensory neurons
in the inner ear.
 Maintains body posture + balance.
Brain Stem
 3”
stalk of nerve cells and fibers that
connect spinal cord to the rest of the
brain.
 Incoming
and outgoing messages pass
through the brain stem.
Medulla Oblongata
 Lowest
part of the brain stem
 Regulates
 Reflexes:
heartbeat + respiratory rates
coughing, sneezing, vomiting
Pons
 1”
in length
 Above
the medulla
 Pathway-
connects nerve impulses to
other parts of the brain.
 Helps regulate breathing.
Midbrain
 Highest
part of the brain stem
 Controls
 Turning
eyeball movement and pupil size
your head at an unexpected noise
Thalamus
 Page
60 in textbook
 Important Relay center for incoming
impulses ( nail/ hot stove)
 Receive
 Above
info from eyes and ears.
the hypothalamus..
Hypothalamus
 Controls
and balances body processes to
regulate: ( means under the thalamus)
 Body
temp (sweat)
 Appetite
 Regulate Sleep
 Pituitary Glands
Hypothalamus controls
 Metabolism
 Sexual
(discuss disturbances)
Development (behavior)
 Emotional
Responses (aggression)
Peripheral Nervous System
 Consists
of all nerves that are not part of
the Central Nervous System
 Carries
messages between CNS and the
rest of the body
2
Parts: Autonomic + Somatic
Autonomic Nervous System
 Consists
of Network of nerves divided into
2 smaller networks.
 “Fight/Flight
 Reflex-
responses”
spontaneous response of body to
stimulus.
Somatic Nervous System
 Sensory
 Relay
messages from receptors to:
 Eyes
 Ears
 Nose
 Tongue
 Skin
Neurons
Parasympathetic Nervous
System
 During
rest and relaxation
 Opposes
 Slows
actions of sympathetic system
down body functions: heartbeat,
lowers blood pressure, opens blood
vessels.
Vocab Quiz on Thursday
 From
Central Nervous System to the Pons
 Terms
1-15
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