atoms

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$$$ Review $$$ Atomic Theory Nuclear Chemistry

Name the three fundamental subatomic particles of the atom.

neutron, proton, electron

The smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element atom

The number of protons in an element is known as its ______.

atomic number

The mass number is defined as the number of …….

protons plus neutrons

An element has an atomic number of 51. How many protons and electrons must this atom have if it is neutral?

51 protons, 51 electrons

Which subatomic particle has differing amounts in isotopes?

neutrons

How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does a neutral atom with an atomic number of 85 and a mass number of 210 have?

85 p, 85 e, 125 n

How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does a -3 charged atom with an atomic number of 85 and a mass number of 210 have?

85 p, 88 e, 125 n

What is the charge on an alpha particle?

+2 (Remember it is a helium nucleus minus the electrons)

What is the charge on a beta particle?

-1

What is a beta particle?

An electron

Can you name three positive uses of nuclear radiation?

Radioactive dating, food irradiation, medical diagnostics, cancer treatment, pacemakers, etc.

Which form of radiation is the most dangerous?

Gamma rays

T or F. A fission reaction occurs when two smaller nuclei come together to create a new, larger nucleus.

False, fusion is being described

Can you name three conclusions from Rutherford’s gold foil experiment.

- Atom is mostly empty space (the nucleus is small compared to entire size of atom) - Most of the mass of the atom is in the center - The positive charged particle (proton) must be in the center of the atom

Who is considered the father of modern chemistry?

Robert Boyle

Element X contains three naturally occurring isotopes with masses of 78.0, 79.0, and 80.0 amu. What data is needed to calculate its average atomic mass? The natural abundance in percent of each isotope (Can you do these calculations?)

What was John Dalton’s main contribution to the theory of the atom?

Elements are made of very small particles called atoms

Complete the following nuclear reaction.

Complete the following nuclear reaction.

T or F. An electron has very little mass when compared to a proton.

True

T or F. A neutron and proton have roughly the same mass and charge.

False, almost same mass but different charge

Which type of cell has a nucleus? A prokaryote or an eukaryote? (What the??!!!) eukaryote

Atoms above 83 usually undergo _____ ______ while those below 83 usually undergo _____ _____?

alpha decay, beta decay

A fission reaction is sometimes called a ______ reaction.

chain

What will stop gamma radiation from hurting you?

Thick slabs of lead or cement

What will stop alpha radiation from hurting you?

clothing or paper

What are the names of the quarks?

Up, down, strange, charm, beauty, truth

You should understand the atomic theory timeline and the various models of the atom as they developed!!!

You should be able to calculate average atomic masses.

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