Name the Scientist Previous pre-shows designed for MAPS included exercises on Face Recognition, Optical Illusions, Modesto People and Landmarks. You have heard of attitude tests, these pre shows are tests with an attitude. This preshow is about scientists who deserve recognition. Because of limited time, the list has been narrowed from thousands (for instance, there have been 863 Nobel prize winners) to some of the most recognizable. Think about it; you can probably name many entertainers and athletes even though for the most part, their impact and influence is fleeting at most. How many Nobel prize winners can you name? Scientists leave a lasting legacy that impacts society forever. It is hoped that by taking this test, your recognition of the names of a few scientists will be increased and your respect and interest in science and its endeavors and accomplishments will result in further study. It is surely harmful to souls to make it a heresy to believe what is proved. Galileo quotations Doubt is the father of invention. After developing the first telescope useful for astronomical research, this ground breaking scientist discovered the four moons of Jupiter. Galilei Galileo (1564- 1642) was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and support for Copernicanism. Because of his criticism of an earth centered universe, Galileo was placed under house arrest. In 1992, the Catholic church apologized for their censure-ship of Galileo. Until the time of Galileo, European scientists relied largely on Aristotle's approach of philosophical analysis to explain physical phenomena. Galileo demonstrated the advantages of experimentation, and argued that physics should be a mathematics-based. Who deserves credit for formulating the three laws of motion? Among his many accomplishments were the description of gravity and the development of calculus. Isaac ? Newton Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1726) PRS MP was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian who has been considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. What 18th century French chemist was considered the father of modern chemistry but lost his life in the French revolution? Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (1743 -1794), the "father of modern chemistry," was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry and biology. He named both oxygen and hydrogen and predicted silicon, proved the law of conservation of mass and disproved the four element concept that everything could be made from earth, air, fire and water. Considered an aristocrat by the French people, he was guillotined. Matter, though divisible in an extreme degree, is nevertheless not infinitely divisible. That is, there must be some point beyond which we cannot go in the division of matter. ... I have chosen the word “atom” to signify these ultimate particles. John Dalton While parts of Dalton’s atomic theory were correct, today’s model of the atom with electrons, protons and neutrons did not emerge until the middle of the 20th century. John Dalton (1776 – 1844) was an English chemist, meteorologist and physicist. Later, Thompson, Rutherford Bohr, Schrodinger and many others contributed to our present model of the atom. In the modern era, who revived and formalized the concept of atoms originally proposed in ancient Greece by Democritus? For 2000 years prior to this revival, the commonly accepted concept that matter is continuous has been attributed to Plato and Aristotle. Who was the British scientist who laid the foundations of the theory of evolution and transformed the way we think about the natural world? Charles Robert Darwin, (1809 – 1882) was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding. “Science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.” Who discovered the germ theory of disease? Louis Pasteur (1822 – 1895) French microbiologist and chemist, made remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases and invented the process of Pasteurization. In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind. Pasteur James Clerk Maxwell (1831 – 1879) was a Scottish theoretical physicist. His theory of electromagnetism united all previously unrelated observations, experiments, and equations of electricity, magnetism, and optics into a consistent theory. Maxwell's equations demonstrate that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the electromagnetic field. Maxwell's achievements have been called the "second great unification in physics", after the first one realized by Isaac Newton. Who in the 19 century developed the theory of electromagnetic fields earning him a place among the greatest physicists ever? In Science, it is when we take some interest in the great discoverers and their lives that it becomes endurable, and only when we begin to trace the development of ideas that it becomes fascinating. James Maxwell Maxwell's Demon refers to the hypothetical creature that James Clerk Maxwell postulated, who could bend the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 2013 Many transuranium elements were discovered by Nobel winner Glen Seaborg (UCB) and co-workers. “The elements, if arranged according to their atomic weights, exhibit an apparent periodicity of properties. “ Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907) was a Russian chemist . He created the first version of the periodic table of elements, and used it to predict the properties of elements yet to be discovered. Who developed the periodic table in 1869? Technically, he incorrectly used atomic weights instead of the atomic numbers. Who won a Nobel prize for developing quantum theory? Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858 – 1947), was a German theoretical physicist who originated quantum theory, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. This was not only Planck's most important work but also marked a turning point in the history of physics. A constant (Planck’s constant) and an institute bear his name. E = hn h = Planck’s constant It is not the possession of truth, but the success which attends the seeking after it, that enriches the seeker and brings happiness to him. Max Planck Svante Arrhenius (18591927) was a Swedish scientist who was the first to claim that fossil fuel combustion might result in enhanced global warming. Despite primitive data, his calculations about temperature magnitudes but not timing were consistent with present day predictions. One of the founders of the science of physical chemistry (developed the concept of ionization in solution), he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1903. Humanity stands ... before a great problem of finding new raw materials and new sources of Who as early as 1896 energy that shall never become was the first person exhausted. In the meantime we to predict must not waste what we have, but anthropomorphic must leave as much as possible global warming? for coming generations. Arrhenius Education is the key to unlock the golden door of freedom. Carver Who was born as a slave in approximately 1864 and later devoted his life to research projects connected primarily with Southern agriculture. The products he derived from the peanut and the soybean revolutionized the economy of the South by liberating it from an excessive dependence on cotton. It is rare to find a man of the caliber of George Washington Carver (~1864 – 1943) . A man I wanted to know the name of every stone and flower and insect and bird and beast. I wanted to know where it got its color, where it got its life - but there was no one to tell me. Carver quotation who would decline an invitation to work for a salary of more than $100,000 a year (almost a million today) to continue his research on behalf of his countrymen. As an agricultural chemist, Carver discovered three hundred uses for peanuts and hundreds more uses for soybeans, pecans and sweet potatoes. Who was the first person to win two Nobel prizes? Marie Skłodowska-Curie (1867 -1934) was a Polish-born physicist and chemist, working mainly in France, who is famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. Not only was she the first person to win 2 Nobel prizes, she was the first woman to win a Noble prize. Her husband, Pierre and later, her daughter and son-in-law also won Nobel prizes. Nothing in life is to be feared, it is only to be understood. Now is the time to understand more, so that we may fear less. I have no dress [for her wedding] except the one I wear every day. If you are going to be kind enough to give me one, please let it be practical and dark so that I can put it on afterwards to go to the laboratory. Who made a very significant contribution to the discovery of nuclear fission but did not share (though deserved) in the Nobel prize awarded for its discovery? Lise Meitner (1878 - 1968) Austrian-born Swedish nuclear physicist. Born in Vienna, she worked with radiochemist, Otto Hahn. They discovered the element protactinium and studied the effects of neutron bombardment on uranium. After leaving Nazi Germany in 1938, she continued her work at the Nobel Physical Institute in Stockholm. Lise and her nephew Otto Frisch, realized that the the uranium nucleus had been split. They called the process "fission." During the war, she refused to work on the atomic bomb. Science makes people reach selflessly for truth and objectivity; it teaches people to accept reality, with wonder and admiration, not to mention the deep awe and joy that the natural order of things brings to the true scientist. Lise Meitner E = mc2 Who is this? Who developed the special and general theories of relativity, effecting a revolution in physics? Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) was Any man who can drive safely while one of the greatest minds in world kissing a pretty girl is simply not giving history. His theories on relativity the kiss the attention it deserves. paved the way for how science Einstein quotations currently views time, space, energy, The most beautiful thing we can and gravity and made predictions experience is the mysterious. It is the that were later verified by source of all true art and all science. experimentation. Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. Pangea Who was the scientist that developed the theory of continental drift, plate tectonics, and Pangea. Alfred Wegener (1880 -1930) was a German meteorologist and geophysicist who developed the first theory of continental drift and formulated the idea that a supercontinent known as Pangea existed on the Earth millions of years ago. His ideas were largely ignored at the time they were developed but today they are very well accepted by the scientific community. Who serendipitously discovered penicillin in 1928? I have been trying to point out that in our lives chance may have an astonishing influence and, if I may offer advice to the young laboratory worker, it would be this - never to neglect an extraordinary appearance or happening. Fleming Sir Alexander Fleming, 1881 – 1955) was a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist. He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mold Penicillium notatum in 1928, for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain. Florey and Chain developed the delivery methods for penicillin. Who led the research group that Wallace Hume Carothers (1896 – 1937) was an American chemist, inventor and the leader of organic discovered nylon? chemistry at DuPont and was credited with the invention of nylon and helped lay the groundwork for Neoprene. Carothers had been troubled by periods of mental depression since his youth. Despite his success with nylon, he felt that he had not accomplished much and had run out of ideas. His unhappiness was compounded by the death of his sister, Isobel, and in 1937 he committed suicide. As Nobel prizes are not granted posthumously, the suicide eliminated the high probability of a Nobel prize for Carothers. Who is the only person to have won two unshared Nobel prizes (chemistry and peace)? The best way to have a good idea is to have a lot of ideas. Pauling quotations The danger is not from peace or from the workers for peace, or from the circulators of petitions urging international law and international agreements. It is from the stockpiles of nuclear weapons that exist in the world." Satisfaction of one's curiosity is one of the greatest sources of happiness in life. Linus Carl Pauling (1901 -1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator. He was one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century. If atomic bombs are to be added as new weapons to the arsenals of a warring world, or to the arsenals of the nations preparing for war, then the time will come when mankind will curse the names of Los Alamos and Hiroshima. The people of this world must unite or they will perish. Oppenheimer Which brilliant physicist administered the Los Alamos laboratory atomic bomb project? J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904 - 1967) was an American physicist. A few of Oppenheimer's notable achievements in physics include the Born– Oppenheimer approximation and a theory of neutron stars. After the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany, he was selected to administer the Los Alamos laboratory to carry out the Manhattan project. After resigning from his post in 1945, he became the chairman of the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, which in October of 1949 opposed the development of the hydrogen bomb. The shocking opposition led to accusations that he was a Communist supporter, and he was suspended from secret nuclear research. In 1963 he was reinstated and awarded the Enrico Fermi Award by President Lyndon B. Johnson. Rachel Louise Carson (1907 – 1964) was an American marine biologist and conservationist whose book Silent Spring (1962) and other writings are credited with launching and advancing the global environmental movement. Who wrote the book, “Silent Spring” that significantly contributed to the launching of the environmental movement? Only within the moment of time represented by the present century has one species -- man -- acquired significant power to alter the nature of his world. Rachel Carson Who developed the first vaccine for polio? Before the vaccine, polio was feared as it reeked havoc around the world. Hope lies in dreams, in imagination, and in the courage of those who dare to make dreams into reality. Intuition will tell the thinking mind where to look next. Salk Jonas Edward Salk (1914 -1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist, best known for his discovery and development of the first polio vaccine. Who got credit and received the Nobel prize for determining the structure of DNA? In 1962 James Watson (b. 1928), Francis Crick (1916–2004), and Maurice Wilkins (1916–2004) jointly received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their 1953 determination of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). We've discovered the secret of life. Francis Crick Science moves with the spirit of an adventure characterized both by youthful arrogance and by the belief that the truth, once found, would be simple as well as pretty. James D. Watson Two famous scientists shared the same name. One received the Nobel prize for his work in immunology. The other with middle name Ralph is known for his dire predictions of overpopulation consequences. Paul Ehrlich (1854 - 1915) won the Noble Prize in 1908 for his contributions to understanding immunology. His co-recipient was Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov. He went on to achieve even greater fame for synthesizing a drug to treat syphilis Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932 -) is an American biologist and educator who is at Stanford University. By training he is an entomologist but he is also a prominent ecologist and demographer. Ehrlich is best known for his dire warnings about population growth and limited resources. Ehrlich became well-known after publication of his controversial 1968 book The Population Bomb. In the years since, some of Ehrlich's predictions have proven incorrect, but he stands by his general thesis that the human population is too large and is a direct threat to human survival and the environment of the planet. Few problems are less recognized, but more important than, the accelerating disappearance of the earth's biological resources. In pushing other species to extinction, humanity is busy sawing off the limb on which it is perched. P.R. Ehrlich In sharp contrast: While not scientists, one of these people claimed to know nothing and the other implies that he knows everything. Who are they? Stephen Colbert “Sometimes it takes a crazy person to see the truth. If so, I'm a freaking lunatic.” “If I had a dime for every time that I was wrong, I'd be broke.” Who has taught the world “What you do makes a difference, and you have to decide what kind of more about chimpanzees difference you want to make.” than anyone else in the “The greatest danger to our future is apathy.” world? Dame Jane Morris Goodall, is a British primatologist, ethologist, anthropologist, and UN Messenger of Peace. Born in 1934 in London, Jane Goodall set out to Tanzania to study wild chimpanzees by sitting amongst them, bypassing more rigid procedures and uncovering discoveries about primate behavior that have continued to shape scientific discourse. She is a highly respected member of the world scientific community and is a staunch advocate of ecological preservation. Stephen Hawking (1942 – present), one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists in history, wrote the modern classic A Brief History of Time to help non-scientists understand fundamental questions of physics and our existence: where did the universe come from? How and why did it begin? Will it come to an end, and if so, how? In 1963, Hawking contracted motor neurone disease and was given two years to live but he continues to this day to contribute to scientific progress. My goal is simple. It is a complete understanding of the universe, why it is as it is and why it exists at all. What very brilliant physicist wrote “A Brief History of Time?” We are just an advanced breed of monkeys on a minor planet of a very average star. But we can understand the Universe. That makes us something very special. Who is primarily responsible for popularizing the Big Bang Theory? a. b. c. d. e. f. Albert Einstein Isaac Newton Galilei Galileo Stephen Hawking Edwin Hubble None of the above Edwin Hubble did contribute but Georges Lemaitre probably deserves credit for the original theory that was later supported by George Gamow. Although Carl Sagan certainly helped popularize the theory, the answer according to this writer is None of the Above. The best answer will appear in the lower left hand corner. Who is the current Secretary of Energy and co-winner of the 1997 Nobel Physics prize? Dr. Steven Chu (1948 - ) is a distinguished scientist and co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1997) for his research on interplay of light and atoms. He has devoted his recent scientific career to the search for new solutions to our energy challenges and stopping global climate change - a mission he continues with even greater urgency as Secretary of Energy. So imagine a world 6 degrees warmer. It's not going to recognize geographical boundaries. It's not going to recognize anything. So agriculture regions today will be wiped out. Steven Chu Despite our considerable dependence on computer related devices, probably very few of us can name any of the people who have contributed to the development of the computer. Charles Babbage 1837 a fully programmable mechanical computer Alan Turing 1936 blueprint for the electronic digital computer John Atanasoff, Clifford Berry 1937 first electronic digital but not programmable computer George Stibitz 1937, Stibitz invented and built a relay-based calculator he dubbed the "Model K" (for "kitchen table", on which he had assembled it), which was the first to use binary circuits to perform an arithmetic operation. Konrad Zuse 1941 The first program-controlled electromechanical computer Tommy Flowers 1943 first programmable electronic computer Extremely important for the development of the modern computer were the discovery of the transistor and the integrated circuit (chip). Can you name any of the people responsible for their discovery? John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley for the discovery of the transistor. John Kilby and Robert Noyce independently (and shared a Nobel prize with controversy) developed the integrated circuit . While this test is over, it is hoped that you will try to learn more about the scientists that have affected our lives. Although some students perceive that the main goal of testing is for grading, the primary goal of testing is actually to provide a learning experience. Hopefully, you have learned from this experience.