History of Nuclear and Particle Physics

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History of Nuclear & Particle
Physics
Time line of the discoveries and
the interests
Time line of the experiment & theory
year
Experiment
1927
 decay discovered
Theory
1928
Dirac: The wave eq. for electron
1930
Pauli: Prediction of neutrino
1931
Positron discovered;
Chadwick: discovery of
neutron
Dirac: Solution of positron from his
equation
year
Experiment
Fermi: Theory for  decay;
Yukawa: Nuclear binding in
terms of mesons
1933
1937
 discovered in cosmic
rays
1938
Discovery of Baryon
number conservation
Turned out that  was not
Yukawa’s particle
1946
1947
19461950
Theory
+ discovered in cosmic
rays
Tomonaga, Schwinger and
Feynman: development of QED
and renomalization
year
Experiment
1948
First artificial pions
1949
Discovery of K+
1950
Discovery of 0  
1951
Discovery of 0 and K0
1952
Discovery of the excited
state of nucleon: 
1954
Theory
Yang, Mills: Extension of gauge
theories
year
Experiment
1956
1956
Lee, Yang: Prediction of parity
breakdown at weak force
CS Wu, Amber: Verified
the parity breakdown
1961
1962
Theory
Eightfold way to organize
particles
Discovery of  and e
1964
Gellman, (Zweig): Three-quark
model u, d, s
1964
Suggestion of the forth quark, c.
year
Experiment
Theory
1965
Discussion of color charge in
quark
1967
Glashow, Salam, Weinberg:
Unified theory of electro-weak
interactions
Prediction of Higgs boson
19681969
DIS at SLAC
constituents of proton
1973
1974
QCD as a standard model
(quark and gluon)
Asymptotic freedom
Discovery of J/
meson
year
Experiment
1976
D0 meson verified the
theory;
Discovery of  lepton
1977
Discovery of bottom quark,
b
1978
Parity violation at neutral
weak interaction
1979
Gluon signature at
PETRA
1983
W and Z0 at CERN
1995
Discovery of top quark, t,
(175 GeV)
1997
Super high energy Physics
at HERA (200 GeV)
Theory
Differences between elementary particle &
nuclear physics
The goal of elementary particle physics
To unify different scales of interactions (forces)
To identify fundamental particles in nature and
to investigate the ultimate law of motion
To find the origin of universe, etc
The goal of nuclear physics
To understand finite atomic nuclei from nucleon
properties and forces
To know the properties of stable materials (“our
everyday life”)
Elementary particle physics
More fundamental investigation in physical
science
Nuclear physics
Application of modern physics including
elementary particle physics
Elementary particle & nuclear physics are closely related historically.
Brief History of Nuclear- Physics Side
year
Experiment
1911
Rutherford: Discovery of
atomic nucleus
1913
Thomson: Nuclear mass
& isotopes
1932
Chadwick: Discovery of
neutron
1934
Deuteron binding energy;
p-p scattering
Theory
Heisenberg: Introduction of
isospin
year
Experiment
Theory
1935
Yukawa: Meson exchange
model
19361951
Establishment of one pion
exchange model
1961
Discovery of , 
mesons (vector
bosons)
19752000
Establishment of one boson
exchange model
19841998
QCD-inspired model
1980-
Effective field theory
Topics of Nuclear Physics
Hadron Structure
The structure of nucleon and modeling
Hadron Spectroscopy
Glueballs, hybrids, multi-quark states (pentaquark)
Heavy Ion Physics
Quark-gluon plasma, and other new phase of matters
Nuclear Astrophysics
Star formation, super novae
Applications
Archeology, environmental science, nuclear medicine,
health physics, nuclear engineering
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