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History of Nuclear & Particle Physics Time line of the discoveries and the interests Time line of the experiment & theory year Experiment 1927 decay discovered Theory 1928 Dirac: The wave eq. for electron 1930 Pauli: Prediction of neutrino 1931 Positron discovered; Chadwick: discovery of neutron Dirac: Solution of positron from his equation year Experiment Fermi: Theory for decay; Yukawa: Nuclear binding in terms of mesons 1933 1937 discovered in cosmic rays 1938 Discovery of Baryon number conservation Turned out that was not Yukawa’s particle 1946 1947 19461950 Theory + discovered in cosmic rays Tomonaga, Schwinger and Feynman: development of QED and renomalization year Experiment 1948 First artificial pions 1949 Discovery of K+ 1950 Discovery of 0 1951 Discovery of 0 and K0 1952 Discovery of the excited state of nucleon: 1954 Theory Yang, Mills: Extension of gauge theories year Experiment 1956 1956 Lee, Yang: Prediction of parity breakdown at weak force CS Wu, Amber: Verified the parity breakdown 1961 1962 Theory Eightfold way to organize particles Discovery of and e 1964 Gellman, (Zweig): Three-quark model u, d, s 1964 Suggestion of the forth quark, c. year Experiment Theory 1965 Discussion of color charge in quark 1967 Glashow, Salam, Weinberg: Unified theory of electro-weak interactions Prediction of Higgs boson 19681969 DIS at SLAC constituents of proton 1973 1974 QCD as a standard model (quark and gluon) Asymptotic freedom Discovery of J/ meson year Experiment 1976 D0 meson verified the theory; Discovery of lepton 1977 Discovery of bottom quark, b 1978 Parity violation at neutral weak interaction 1979 Gluon signature at PETRA 1983 W and Z0 at CERN 1995 Discovery of top quark, t, (175 GeV) 1997 Super high energy Physics at HERA (200 GeV) Theory Differences between elementary particle & nuclear physics The goal of elementary particle physics To unify different scales of interactions (forces) To identify fundamental particles in nature and to investigate the ultimate law of motion To find the origin of universe, etc The goal of nuclear physics To understand finite atomic nuclei from nucleon properties and forces To know the properties of stable materials (“our everyday life”) Elementary particle physics More fundamental investigation in physical science Nuclear physics Application of modern physics including elementary particle physics Elementary particle & nuclear physics are closely related historically. Brief History of Nuclear- Physics Side year Experiment 1911 Rutherford: Discovery of atomic nucleus 1913 Thomson: Nuclear mass & isotopes 1932 Chadwick: Discovery of neutron 1934 Deuteron binding energy; p-p scattering Theory Heisenberg: Introduction of isospin year Experiment Theory 1935 Yukawa: Meson exchange model 19361951 Establishment of one pion exchange model 1961 Discovery of , mesons (vector bosons) 19752000 Establishment of one boson exchange model 19841998 QCD-inspired model 1980- Effective field theory Topics of Nuclear Physics Hadron Structure The structure of nucleon and modeling Hadron Spectroscopy Glueballs, hybrids, multi-quark states (pentaquark) Heavy Ion Physics Quark-gluon plasma, and other new phase of matters Nuclear Astrophysics Star formation, super novae Applications Archeology, environmental science, nuclear medicine, health physics, nuclear engineering