FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Anatomy & Physiology Cont…
• The female is born with about 2 million
OOCYTES (
)
____________
halted at Prophase I, only 400
of which will mature into _______within
her
OVA
14
lifetime. On about the _________
day of the
menstrual cycle, the ovum is released from a
FOLLICLE
___________
on the surface of the
FIMBRIAE
OVARY
____________
at ovulation. ____________
move it into the ___________.
FALLOPIAN TUBES.
immature eggs
TH
Anatomy & Physiology Cont…
• Sperm are deposited in the ______
which leads
VAGINA
UTERUS They must make their
to the mouth of the _____.
CERVIX
way through the _______,
the muscular sphincter
at the opening of the uterus, and up the Fallopian
tube to fertilize the ovum within about 24 hours
or the ovum will die. Peristaltic contractions
move the ovum or zygote to the _______
in
UTERUS
about 3 days. If the ovum is not fertilized or
MENSTRUATION will occur on day 28.
implanted, ____________
Anatomy & Physiology Cont…
• In any egg cell, the sex chromosome is a(an)
X
____
chromosome. In a sperm cell, the sex
Y
chromosome is either a(an) ___
or a(an) ___
X
chromosome. If a sperm with an X
chromosome fertilized the egg, the sex
chromosome pattern of the fertilized egg is
_____
and the offspring will be a ________.
If
XX
GIRL
a sperm with a Y chromosome fertilizes the
egg, the sex chromosome pattern of the
XY
fertilized egg is ___
and the offspring will be a
BOY
________.
Anatomy & Physiology
FALLOPIAN TUBE
OVARY
UTERUS
CERVIX
URINARY BLADDER
VAGINA
URETHRA
Anatomy & Physiology Cont…
FALLOPIAN TUBE
FIMBRIAE
DISCHARGED OOCYTE
RUPTURED FOLLICLE
PRIMARY OOCYTE
External Anatomy
• VULVA
– All of the external organs of the (F.R.S.)
• MONS PUBIS
– Rounded, fatty pad of tissue
– Covered in pubic hair after puberty begins
– Front of body, on top of pubic bone (protection)
• LABIA
– Rich in nerve endings and blood vessels (similar…)
– Protects internal organs against pathogens
– Functions in sexual arousal
– Labia Majora
• OUTER fold of tissue on either side of the vaginal
opening
• Covered in pubic hair after puberty begins
– Labia Minora
• INNER fold of tissue, just inside the majora
• Extends forward covering the clitoris
• Vaginal Opening
– Hymen
• Located just inside the vaginal opening
• Thin tissue stretching across the opening
• No known function; not always present
– Some females may be born w/o; usually has several holes
– Allows passage of menstrual flow
• 1ST time w/intercourse – female may experience pain &
bleeding, NOT ALWAYS true with all females!
• Tissue is very flexible & may stay intact during
intercourse!
– b/c it has openings, sperm released at the vaginal opening can
swim into vagina and up to the ovum
» Can get pregnant & still have hymen intact!
• Clitoris
– Small knob of tissue above & in front of vaginal
opening
– Rich supply of nerve endings & blood vessels
– Important in sexual arousal
• Similar in sensitivity & # of nerve endings to head of
penis
INTERNAL ANATOMY
• Vagina = “birth canal”
– Elastic tube-like pathway
– 4-5” long
– At rest, walls of vagina
touch
• During arousal, they expand
to allow penis to enter
• If not ready/aroused, walls
of vagina will tear
VAGINA
– Capable of stretching to
allow birth
Leads to CERVIX
CERVIX
- “neck of the uterus”
- Opening is small,
dilates (“opens”) to
allow passage of baby.
• UTERUS
– Strong elastic muscle;
about the size of a fist
– Primary fxn – hold &
nourish developing
embryo & fetus
– Endometrium
• Inner lining of uterus
• Rich supply of blood
vessels
– Builds up w/blood
tissue to prepare for a
possible pregnancy
UTERUS
The parts on the inside are:
Uterus
• Sometimes called the womb.
• Muscular organ about the size of a
pear.
• Where developing baby, called a
fetus, grows and is fed.
• Where the period comes from.
Cervix
• The lower part of the uterus.
• Makes mucus to keep sperm alive.
• Has opening where sperm enter
uterus and where the baby comes
out of the uterus.
Vagina
• Warm, soft, moist
passageway joining
outside and uterus.
• Fallopian Tubes
– Tubes on each side of
the uterus
– Leads to ovaries
– Extremely narrow;
lined with cilia
(similar…?)
FALLOPIAN
TUBES
• Fimbriae
FIMBRIAE
• Finger-like projections at the end of
the fallopian tubes
• Surrounds the top part of each ovary
• Gathers ovum into tube
• Fertilization usually occurs in the
widest part of the fallopian tube
(upper 1/3) near the ovaries
OVARIES
• Female sex
glands/organs
• Situated on both
sides of the uterus;
end of fallopian tubes
• 2 main functions
– House ova
– Produce female sex
hormones
• Estrogen &
Progesterone
OVARY
The parts on the inside are:
Fallopian tubes
• Narrow tubes between the uterus
and the ovary.
Ovaries
• Glands that make egg cells and
female sex hormones.
Ovulation
• Process of releasing one mature ovum each
month into that ovary’s fallopian tube
• 2-300,000 immature ova in ovaries at birth
• Hormones from pituitary cause ovaries to
begin producing female sex hormones
• Ova begin to mature
• Ovum can live about 2 days in fallopian tube
• One sperm will enter ovum =
fertilization/conception
MENSTRUATION
• Each month, uterus
prepares for possible
pregnancy
– Hormones cause
thickening of
endometrium
– If ovum is fertilized, it
moves into the uterus
and may burrow into this
lining
– Will divide millions of
times over 9-10 months
Menstrual Period
• If the ovum is not fertilized
– it doesn’t attach to the
uterine lining/endometrium
• Muscles of the uterus
contract  lining breaks
down (“cramps”)
• Lining passes through the
cervix into the vagina and
out of the vaginal opening
Menstruation
• Process of shedding the lining of the uterus
• Usually lasts 4-7 days (may be shorter or longer depending on the
female’s individual cycle)
• Regulated by hormones
• 2-3 tablespoons of blood
• Rest of flow is other tissue that makes up
the endometrium
– Blood and tissue are not needed, person
should not be weak or ill from loss
– After period (“menses”), cycle begins again.
Menstruation cont…
• Most females begin menstruation between 10-15
• As with males, many hormonal changes are
occurring, so the body may take a couple of years
to adjust
• Cycle may be irregular
Menopause
– Ceasing of menstruation
– Between 45-50
• Hormones control the cycle
– Nutrition, stress & diet can influence cycle
Menstrual Health Care
• Should not be an odor from vagina at any time
• Menstrual flow should not have an odor until it
mixes with air
Products
– Absorb menstrual flow
– Sanitary napkin/panty shield
• Worn outside the body
• Should be changed every 3-4 hours, depending on the
heaviness of flow
– Tampons
• Worn inside the body/vagina
• Must be changed frequently to avoid risk of infection
FEMALE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
Structural & Hormonal Changes
MENSTRUAL PHASE
• Days 1-5
• Uterus sheds the endometrium
• Gonadotropin & ovarian hormones are at
their lowest normal levels
– Gonadotropin hormones = FSH & LH
– Ovarian hormones = estrogen & progesterone
• DAY 5
– Start producing more estrogen
PROLIFERATIVE PHASE
• Days 6-14
• Changes are stimulated by estrogen levels
• Endometrium rebuilds itself
– Rising levels of estrogen cause the endometrium
to make a new layer
– Layer becomes thick & well supplied with blood
Proliferative phase cont…
• Cervical mucus is normally thick & sticky
– estrogen = thin cervical mucous
(let’s sperm through!!!!!!)
• Ovulation!
– Occurs at the end of this stage
– Usually around day 14 (theoretically)
– Sudden release of LH!
SECRETORY PHASE
• Days 15-28
• Endometrium prepares for implantation of
embryo
– Embryo = fertilized egg
•
progesterone = thicker cervical mucous
Secretory phase cont…
IF NOT FERTILIZED!!!
• Endometrial cells begin to die
• As the blood vessels die, they constrict and
then open wide, causing blood to gush out,
causing the functional layer of the
endometrium to slough off
MENSTRUAL CYCLE STARTS ALL OVER AGAIN
CONCERNS ABOUT THE FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS)
•Variety of symptoms that some
females experience
•Occurs before the menstrual period
•2 weeks – couple days before
period
•Some females never experience PMS
•Symptoms
•Nervous tension, anxiety,
irritability, Bloating, weight gain,
depression/mood swings, fatigue
PMS cont…
• Causes aren’t completely understood…
– More common in 30’s women
– Related to hormone imbalance
– Nutritional deficiency
• Treatment
– Change in diet & exercise
– Serious cases = antidepressant meds
Dysmenorrhea
• Aka “menstrual cramps
– Painful contractions in the uterus
– Usually mild – lasting several hours
– More painful cramping lasting 1-2 days is normal
Treatment
* Light exercise
* OTC pain reliever can help (except
aspirin!)
* Warm bath/heating pad may relax
muscles
* Severe or persistent cramping may be an indication that
medical attention is necessary*
Amenorrhea
• Lack of menstruation by age 16 or stopping of
menstrual cycle in a female who previously
menstruated
• Cause
– Physical defects in sex organs
– Diseases
•
•
•
•
Diabetes
Tumors
Infections
Lack of maturation of the endocrine system
– Excessive athletic activities
– Emotional distress
– Eating disorders/starvation
Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
• Rare disease caused by common pathogen
– Staphylococcus aureus
– Commonly found on skin, in mouth, and in vagina
– Under certain conditions, bacterium can produce
a poison/toxin that affects the immune system
and liver
• Symptoms
– High fever -- Vomiting -- Diarrhea --Dizziness
– Low blood pressure – Fainting – Rash resembling a sunburn
TSS Cont…
• Can result in liver and kidney damage
• In 5% of cases = DEATH!
• Treatment
– Antibiotics
– Fluids & supportive therapy
• More than ½ of all cases occur in women
– Traced to the use of super-absorbent tampons
– They absorb Mg & provide 02-rich environment
– Enables bacterium to easily produce its toxins
• Also been diagnosed in men & children
Vaginitis
• Common term for vaginal infections
• Will affect most females at some point
• 3 common types
– Yeast infection
– Nonspecific vaginitis
– trichomoniasis
Vaginitis Types
YEAST INFECTION
• Caused by a fungus
• White odorous
discharge
• Genital itching
NONSPECIFIC VAGINITIS
• Caused by bacteria
• Itching
• Odorless discharge
• Burning sensation
during urination
TRICHOMONIASIS
• Caused by a protozoan
• Often occurs at the end of the menstrual period
• Odorous discharge
• Genital itching
• Occasionally burning sensation during urination
Vaginitis Treatment
• * Contact doctor for proper diagnosis !*
• Yeast Infection
– Yeast-killing cream
– Suppository medication, placed in the vagina
• Trich & NSV
– Antibiotic prescribed by Doctor
• mostly the result of imbalance of organisms
normally present in the vagina
• Some can also be the result of sexual contact
with an infected person
Sterility
• Inability to reproduce
• Causes
– Blocking of 1 or both fallopian tubes
• Ova cannot pass into the uterus
– Female does not ovulate
– Endometriosis
• Endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus in other
areas of the pelvic cavity
• Surgery can sometimes correct this problem!
– Untreated STDs
• Untreated Chlamydia & gonorrhea are the most
common STDs that cause sterility
BREAST CANCER
• Most common form of cancer in females
• 2ND leading cause of death in females (1ST = lung
cancer)
• Prevention
– Maintain ideal weight for height
– Eat foods high in Vitamin A & C
• Treatment
– Most treatable & curable when detected early
– Limited & less disfiguring if detected when in a
small area of the breast
Breast Cancer Cont…
• Symptoms
– Change in breast or nipple appearance
– Lump or swelling in breast
– Lump under the armpit
• 90% of all breast lumps in females are
discovered by the females themselves!
– Most are benign (harmless)
CERVICAL CANCER
• Pap Smear
– Test done by Doctors to detect abnormal cells
– Uses along instrument to gather cells from cervix
– Lab techs examine the cells for
cancer/precancerous cells
– Female should have a pap smear every year from
age 18 (earlier if she’s sexually active!)
• If not detected early, cancer cells spread more
deeply into the cervix & its surrounding areas
Cervical Cancer Cont…
• Symptoms
– No Early Symptoms
– Risk Factors
•
•
•
•
Age 20-30
Never having a pap smear
Sexual intercourse at an early age
Multiple sex partners
• Treatment
– Can be treated with surgery to remove part or all
of the cervix and other affected areas
– Radiation or chemotherapy
OVARIAN CANCER
• 2 types
– Lining of the ovary
– Cells that make eggs
• “germ cell tumor” of the ovary
• Usually occur in teen girls or young women
• RARE
Ovarian Cancer Cont…
• Symptoms
– Early
• Vague gastrointestinal discomfort
• Pelvic pressure
• pain
– Later
•
•
•
•
Deepened voice
Unusual hair growth
Unexplained weight loss
Enlarged, hard and sometimes tender mass in lower
abdomen
• Painful interourse
• Anemia
• By this time… the disease is quite advanced
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
• Common hygiene methods are important
• Vagina is self-cleaning
– Cells in the lining of the vagina are constantly
being shed
– Forms a slight vaginal discharge (NORMAL!)
• Douches & feminine hygiene sprays are not
necessary
– May cause irritation
– Disrupt female’s natural cleansing method
Breast Self-Exam (“BSE”)
• Important to be performed every month
– Best time = week after period
• Annual mammograms are recommended for
women 40+
– Type of X-ray
– Shows image of soft tissue in the breast
– Tumors show up on x-ray
• Different kind of tissue
• Show up as white on x-ray film
Pelvic Examination
• Female should have yearly pelvic exams
– When she starts having sexual intercourse
– When she turns 18
•
•
•
•
General physical exam (BP, heart & lungs)
May have blood/urine test
Will check external genital area
Digital exam of vagina & tissues
• Speculum
– Tool used to hold the walls of
the vagina open so the physician
can see the tissue inside
– Should not be painful!
• Pap Smear usually completes
the pelvic exam
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