CHAPTER 11 Gender, Age, and Health

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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Age & Disability
Chapter 11:2
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Section 2: Age and Disability
Objectives:
 Discuss the effect that the aging of the
population is having on society.
 Explain how the aging of the population is
affecting the life chances of older
Americans.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Ageism:
 Ageism:
 The belief that one age category is by nature
superior to another age category.
 EX: TV commercials use elderly
people for over the counter medications,
dentures, insurance, burial plans, etc….
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
The Aging World:
 About 606 million people aged 60 and older
worldwide.
 Europe: oldest region of the world.
 Africa: youngest region of the world
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Graying of America:
 The phenomenon of the growing percentage of
elderly Americans as part of the total U.S.
population.
Check out pg. 273
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
2 main reasons for Graying of America
1. Advances in health care.
2. Variations in birthrates have changed the age
structure of the U.S.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Births in U.S.  rose sharply in 1946 and
stayed the same until 1960s. (baby-boom
generation)
 Today’s Age: late thirties to mid-fifties.
 By 2030, will increase elderly population
nearly 70 million.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
The Politics of Aging:
 Elderly have become both a political force
and a topic of debate.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Bringing needs of elderly to national level:
 AARP (American Association of Retired
Persons)
 THE LARGEST special-interest group in the U.S.
 Provides financial advice & health-care insurance
plans.
 Travel and prescription –drug discounts
 Modern Maturity- magazine
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Concerns for Elderly:
FYI
 Social Security:
 Funded by payroll or income taxes on workers,
employers, the self-employed.
 Current payroll taxes fund the benefits paid to
current retirees.
 Challenges: Declining birthrates and longer life
expectancies mean fewer workers to support
growing numbers of retirees.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Concerns for Elderly:
 Social Security:
 Dependency ratio: the number of workers for each
person receiving Social Security benefits.
 1960: 5 to 1
 2030: 2 to 1
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
“Old-Old” Challenges:
(85+)
 Medicare:
 Government-sponsored health-insurance plan for elderly
Americans and Americans with disabilities.
 Medicaid:
 State and federally funded health-insurance program for
low-income individuals.
 FYI: these programs are the sole sources of health
insurance for close to one quarter of elderly Americans.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Is there hope for Social Security?
 Raising retirement age
 Cutting benefits
 Increasing Social Security
payroll taxes.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Age Inequality in the United States:
 Social Security have made older Americans
financially secure at the expense of younger
generations.
 Poverty rate for elderly: 10.2%
 Poverty rate or general population: 11.3%
 Poverty rate for children under age 18: 16.2 %
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
 Elderly African Americans: 22%
 Elderly Hispanics: 19%
 Women are hit by poverty than are men!
 Poverty levels increase with Hispanic & African
American women.
 Poverty levels often high among old-old (85+).
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Americans with Disabilities:
 Cover a wide variety of conditions:
 Physical disabilities
 Chronic health impairments
 Mental retardation
 Mental illness
 Visual, hearing, and speech impairments.
 Blindness, deafness, and paralysis
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Prejudice & Discrimination:
 Stereotypical belief that their disabilities make
them incapable of doing productive work.
 Result: High unemployment rate among disabled.
 Receive government assistance, but still
struggle financially.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
 Disabled struggled for civil rights.
 All Handicapped Children Act of 1975:
Guaranteed children with disabilities a public
education geared toward their needs
and abilities.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
ADA:
 “Americans with Disabilities Act” (1990)
 Address 4 main areas:
1. Employment: Illegal to discriminate against people with
disabilities in hiring, promotion, and pay.
2. Public services: Transportation
3. Public accommodations: Hotels, restaurants, theaters,
etc….
4. Telecommunications: Telecommunications-relay
services (TRS)
 Hearing and speech impaired
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Chapter 11: Section 3
Health
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Section 3: Health
Objectives:
 Describe the state of health care in the United
States.
 Identify some of the special health-care
concerns of various segments of American
society.
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What are your THREE main concerns
when you receive healthcare???
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
We will focus on THREE Main Issues:
Cost of Health Care
Quality of Health Care
Access to Health Care
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Section 3: Health
Health Care in the U.S.
 Focuses on THREE Main Issues:
1. Cost of Health Care – concern over the rapid rise in
health care costs
 Why rise in cost?
Turn to Pg. 281
Hospital care
Advances in technology
Fears of malpractice lawsuits
Increased spending on prescription drugs
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2. Quality of Health Care – some believe that
managed care has decreased the quality of
health care.
Managed care: limits costs by requiring
patients to choose approved doctors who have
agreed to reduced rates, requiring approval for
treatment, and setting limits on drugs that can
HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
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be prescribed.
SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
3. Access to Health Care – distribution of physicians,
both geographically and within the medical
profession, has limited accessibility to health care.
Geographically: Beverly Hills: 1 Dr.: 254
Poverty stricken: 1 Dr.: 24, 500
Professionally: Short in general-practice doctors.
Most in specialty fields (EX:
Cardiologists)
WHY?? More $$$
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Section 3: Health
Health Care Concerns Today
1. Health Insurance – unequal health care exists
between public and private insurance programs.
Private insurance: people pay set periodic fees.
Public insurance: government programs such as
Medicare (elderly) and Medicaid
(poor).
Canada: Gov’t finances health care through national
health insurance. HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Inequality and Health:
 Poor people are LESS likely than wealthy
Americans to receive adequate medical care.
 Turn to pg. 284
 …THEN, turn to pg. 282
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
2. Alternative Medicine – is a concern because
there are few scientific studies on the
effectiveness of alternative treatments.
EX: Chiropractic, massage, meditation, yoga,
herbal remedies, etc….
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
3. AIDS – has developed into one of the most
serious public-health problems in the U.S. and
around the world in just two decades.
AIDS: a disease that attacks the immune
system, leaving a person vulnerable to a host
of deadly infections.
HIV: virus that causes AIDS.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
HIV is transmitted through:
 Sexual contact
 Contaminated blood and tissue
 Use of contaminated hypodermic needles
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Highest Risk:
 Homosexual and bisexual males (46%).
 Intravenous drug abusers (25%).
 Sexual partners of high-risk persons.
 Persons receiving blood transfusions.
 Babies of high-risk mothers.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
How is government helping???
 Spent $10 billion!!!!
 70% went towards
care and assistance.
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A Global Affair:
 Sub-Saharan Africa:
70%
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of HIV and AIDS sufferers live!
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AIDS
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AIDS
 Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
 About 70% of the estimated 36 million people
in the world currently carrying HIV, the virus
that causes AIDS, live in Africa south of the
Sahara.
 By 2000: 17 million already died of AIDSrelated diseases.
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
AIDS:
 In Zimbabwe, a child is more likely to die of
AIDS than of any other cause!!
 Treatments cost too much for Africans or
their governments to purchase.
 In Zimbabwe:
 Life expectancy fallen from 65 years to 41
years because of AIDS!!
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
 Estimated that by
2010, 10.7 million
children in Africa
under the age of 15
will have lost at
least one parent to
AIDS!!
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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Doctors Online?
Turn to pg. 282
 Answer #1 & #2
 Also, answer the following:
 Have you ever referred to health-related web sites
for information?
 Why do you think such online medical sites are so
popular?
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SOCIOLOGY THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
Complete the following in pairs:
Segment of Society
Special Health-Care Concerns
Poor people
Elderly individuals
AIDS sufferers
People suffering from chronic illnesses
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