Chp.12Notes

advertisement

1

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

CHAPTER 12

The Family

Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Section 2: The American Family

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

2

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Objectives:  Describe the norms that influence the ways in which marriage patterns are organized around the world.

 Identify the basic societal needs that the institution of the family satisfies.

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

3

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Norms and Marriage Patterns Around the World 

Number of marriage partners

– in industrialized nations marriages are usually monogamous whereas in pre-industrial societies the normal pattern is polygyny 

Residential Patterns –

once individuals are married they must decide where to live

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective

4

Norms and Marriage Patterns Around the World

(continued)

Descent Patterns –

in some societies people trace kinship through the father’s side of the family, in others descent is traced through the mother’s side of the family or through both parents 

Authority Patterns –

the three basic types are

patriarchy, matriarchy

and

egalitarian

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

5

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Basic Needs Provided by the Family  Regulation of sexual activity – enforce incest taboo which is a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives  Reproduction – societies establish norms governing childbearing and child rearing

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

6

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 1: The Family in Cross-Cultural Perspective Basic Needs Provided by the Family

(continued)

 Socialization – children must be taught the ways of the society into which they were born  Economic and Emotional Security – family acts as the basic economic unit in society and in most cases labor is divided on the basis of gender

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

7

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 2: The American Family Objectives:  Explain how American families begin and describe some of the disruptions they might face.

 Analyze some of the trends in American family life currently being examined by sociologists.

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

8

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 2: The American Family Beginnings of the American Family and Disruptions  Marriage begins with courtship and marriage between either homogamous or heterogamous couples  Disruptions include family violence, divorce, empty nest, return of adult children and death of a spouse

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 2: The American Family

9

Sociologists Examine Trends in American Family Life  Delayed Marriages – current trend is to marry later in life and being single has become an acceptable alternative to being married  Delayed Childbearing – women are delaying childbirth to complete their education and establish a career  Childlessness – couples are making the conscious choice to remain

voluntarily childless

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

SOCIOLOGY

THE STUDY OF HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS

Section 2: The American Family Sociologists Examine Trends in

10

American Family Life  Dual-Earner Marriages

(continued)

– increase in the number of dual-earner marriages due to the increased number of women entering the workforce  One-Parent Families – come about in various ways such as divorce, death of a spouse, births to unwed mothers or adoption by unmarried individuals  Remarriage – the majority of people who get divorced  about 75 percent  get remarried

HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

Download