Introduction to Animal Science Powerpoint

Animal Science
Introduction to Animal Science
What is Animal Science?
 Care, management and production of
domestic animals
 Animals used for food, clothing & tools
 What was the first domesticated animal?
Dog for tracking, then herding
 After animals become domesticated, they
become dependent on man
 Most can’t survive in wild
 Most poultry can’t fly
 Sheep don’t shed wool
 Cows produce 20,000 lbs milk / year
 Birds produce 250 eggs / yr. (20 in wild)
Animal Use as Food
 Meat - (muscle tissue) Beef, Pork, Lamb,
Goat, Poultry
Most efficient way to get protein
Only way to harvest some natural
resources like grass
 Milk - inexpensive source of protein
Cheese, ice cream, yogurt
 Eggs - pastries, mayonnaise, custards
Animal Use as By-Products
 Bones - buttons, glue, mineral supplement for
livestock feed (Calcium)
 Fat - chemicals, salves, creams, dressings,
lubricants, soaps, food
 Glands - medicines, food additives
 Collagen - (connective tissue in joints) glue &
 Intestinal & Stomach tissue - lunch meats, surgical
sutures, strings for musical & sports instruments
(contents = fertilizer)
Animals Use as Work
Cultivate land
Control other animals
Assist physically & mentally
Rehabilitation of disabled
Other Animal Use
 Hides - leather
 Hair - wool, mohair, fiber
 Lab Animals - mice, rats, guinea pigs etc.
 Pets
What is the future of Animal
 Embryo Transplant - can produce 20
calves from one cow per year
 Cloning - using an animal cell to grow an
identical duplicate animal
 Animal “Pharming” – producing animals to
produce drugs and chemicals
Terminology of Animal Science
 Cow- a female bovine that has had offspring
 Bull- a male bovine capable of reproducing
 Heifer- a young female bovine that has not
had offspring
 Steer- a castrated male bovine
 Calf- a young bovine (less than 30 mo)
 Calve- the act of giving birth to a calf
Terminology of Animal Science
 Wean- to remove a young animal from it’s
 Colostrum- nutrient rich milk from the mother
following birth
 Lactation- the period when a female produces
milk after a birth
 Freshen- when a female produces milk prior to
giving birth
 Cull- the act of removing unproductive animals
from a group
Terminology of Animal Science
 Sow- a female hog that has given birth
 Boar- a male hog capable of breeding
 Gilt- a young female porcine
 Barrow- a young male porcine
 Piglets- very young porcine
 Farrow- the act of giving birth to piglets
 Litter- a group of piglets born at one time
Terminology of Animal Science
 Ewe- a female sheep that has lambed
 Ram- a male sheep also known as buck
 Ewe lamb- a young female ovine
 Whether- a castrated male ovine
 Lamb- a young ovine
 Lambing- the act of giving birth to lambs
 Dock- the act of removing the tail of a
young lamb
Terminology of Animal Science
 Mutton- the meat of sheep animals
 Shearing- the act of removing wool or
mohair from an animal
 Wool- natural fiber produced by ovines
 Mohair- a less textured hair usually
harvested from goats for fiber
 Cashmere- a valuable hair from cashmere
Terminology of Animal Science
 Doe- a female goat that has reproduced,
also called a nanny
 Buck- a male goat capable of reproducing
 Kid- a young caprine
 Kidding- the act of giving birth to young
 Chevon- a goat grown for meat
Terminology of Animal Science
 Mare- an adult female horse
 Stallion- a male horse capable of
reproducing also called a stud
 Gelding- a castrated male equine
 Foal- a young equine
 Colt- a young male equine
 Filly- a young female equine
 Draft- a horse produced for work
Terminology of Animal Science
 Hen- a female chicken
 Rooster- a male chicken also known as a
 Capon- a castrated male rooster
 Clutch- a set of eggs being hatched
 Molt- the act of losing feathers
 Layers- poultry used to produce eggs
 Fryers- poultry used for meat
Terminology of Animal Science
 Pedigree- tracking the ancestors of an
 Breed- a variety of animal with specific
 Breed Association- a group of producers
that ensure breed traits
 Commodity Group- a group of producers
producing a similar product
Anatomy and Physiology
 Skeletal System
Made of bone and cartilage
Gives the animal structure and
Protects the organs of the animal
Joints use tendons and ligaments
Marrow in bones produces red blood
Types of Bones
Anatomy and Physiology
 Muscular System
Provides movement for animal and supports
Keeps blood flowing and cells living
Helps with digestion of food
Provides a proteins source for humans
Voluntary and involuntary, smooth and
striated, and red and white
Anatomy and Physiology
 Circulatory System
Heart and blood vessels
Arteries and Veins
Provides oxygen and nutrients to each
individual cell
Removes wastes from the cells
 A Blue Whale’s heart is the same size as a VW Bug??
Anatomy and Physiology
 Respiratory System
Consists of lungs and airways
Provides necessary oxygen to
Removes carbon dioxide from the
Anatomy and Physiology
 Nervous and Endocrine Systems
Nervous system is brain, spinal cord,
nerves and nerve endings
Endocrine system is series of glands
that secrete hormones
Hormones have chemical effect on body
Anatomy and Physiology
 Digestive System
Provides the bloodstream with
necessary nutrients to deliver to cells
Breaks food into basic nutrients to be
used by the body
Removes unneeded products
Can be simple (monogastric) or
ruminant (polygastric)
Anatomy and Physiology
 Digestive System- Simple
Human, Pig, Dog, Horse, Birds
Animal ingests food
Food is chemically broken down into
elements by acid in the stomach
Elements are absorbed by intestines
Waste is excreted
Anatomy and Physiology
 Digestive System- Ruminant
Cow, Sheep, Goats, Deer
Animal ingests food
Rumen ferments cellulosic fiber
Reticulum filters contents
Omasum extracts water in layers
Abomasum is true stomach where
chemical breakdown takes place
Anatomy and Physiology
 Reproductive System
 Ovaries and testes produce cells
 Female cells are called eggs or ovum
 Male cells are called sperm
 Animals mate and cells are combined
 Each sex cell contributes one half of offspring’s DNA
 Pregnancy- carrying a fetus
 Fertilization-the union of the egg and sperm nuclei
 Conception- Occurrence of fertilization
 Ovulation- Release of an ovule from the female
 Gestation- The time from fertilization or conception of a
female until she gives birth
Female Reproductive System
 Vulva: Exterior portion of reproductive tract, and
opening of reproductive tract, provides visual signs of
 Vagina: Between vulva and cervix, channel for birth and
copulation (cows and ewes, semen is deposited here)
 Cervix: “Mouth of the womb,” Divides vagina and uterus
and is opening into uterus. (Mares and sows, semen is
deposited here). At birth, cervix stretches to allow baby
to pass. During pregnancy, cervix become blocked with a
mucous plug to prevent infection.
 Uterus: Provides nourishment for fetus
 Horns of Uterus: Two branches of uterus. Where fetus
 Fallopian Tube: Where fertilization occurs, lined with cilia
which aid in egg migration.
 Ovaries: Houses all eggs, possess large number of eggs
in all stages of development. Produces hormones
Male Reproductive System
 Testes: Produce sperm and testosterone
 Epididymis: Tube connects to testes, collects and stores
 Vas Deferens: Tube connects to epididymus, transports
 Penis: Places sperm in female
 Sperm: Male Reproductive Cell
 Semen: Fluid that carries sperm
 Scrotum: Protects testes and maintains temperature
 Sheath: Opening of reproductive tract.
 Urethra - begins at bladder and continues through penis
 Sigmoid Flexure - "S" shape in urethra allows for
extension of penis outside of body for reproduction
 Cowpers Gland, Prostate Gland, Seminal Vesicle:
Produce Semen and provide medium for transporting
sperm, adds volume, provides nutrients, cleans and
flushes urinary tract
Animal Reproduction
 Estrous Cycle
The cycle of a female producing eggs
Can be monoestrous or polyestrous
 Artificial Insemination
Placing sperm from male into female
 Embryo Transfer
Fertilizing many eggs from one female and
placing them in host females
Animal Reproduction
 Pure Breeding
Breeding specific breeds to the same
Usually registered with an association
 Cross Breeding
Mixing breeds for desirable traits
 Grading Up
Breeding purebreds to commercial
animals to increase value of offspring
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