Accounting 2010

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Accounting
NTUQF
2010.09.13
基本概念
Accounting 2010
Generally accepted accounting principles
(GAAP)
The basic accounting equation and assets,
liabilities, and stockholder’s equity
Analyze the effects of business transactions on
the accounting equation
Financial statement
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What is Accounting?
Accounting 2010
Accounting 是辨認,紀錄某組織(營利,非營利)所
發生的經濟事項,進而將結果溝通給使用者的過程,
以幫助使用者(interested users)做審慎的判斷與
決策.
 Identifying(辨認): 認出某經濟個體所進行的經濟活動
 Recording(紀錄): 將已認定事項,使用貨幣加以衡量,並
有系統按序加以記載!
 Communicating(溝通): 將紀錄的內容, 透過編製與揭露
會計報表來告知使用人 (如:財務報表, Financial
statement,簡稱F/S).
 **會計人員在編製F/S時,常已事先加以彙總 (summary),分析
(analysis),與解說(interpretation).
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Who Uses Accounting Data?
Accounting 2010
 會計在提供有用資訊給使用者作決策, 故稱為language of
business
 根據決策類型分為


Internal users: 企業內部掌理規劃,組織與營運的階層管理人員.
=> managerial accounting
External users: 企業個體以外使用會計資訊的人,包括:
 財務利益者
 Investor: 買,賣,或繼續持有股票
 Creditor: 如供應商或銀行評估授信或放款風險
 間接財務利益者
 Taxing authorities (e.g., Internal Revenue Service, IRS)
 Regulatory agencies (e.g., Security exchange commission, SEC)
 Customer, labor unions
=> Financial accounting
=> Basic, intermediate, and advanced accounting
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Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
Accounting 2010
一般公認會計原則 (GAAP)
 成本原則(Cost principles)
 收益實現原則(Revenue realization principles)
 配合原則(Matching principles)
 充分揭露原則(Full disclosure principles)
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Assumptions
Accounting 2010
Assumptions (公設Postulate,慣例Convention)
 企業個體慣例 (Separate entity)
 繼續經營慣例 (Going-concern)
 貨幣評價假設 (Monetary unit )
 會計期間假設 (Time Period )
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經濟個體假設(Economic Entity)
Accounting 2010
Entity: Any organization or unit in society
(e.g., 台積電, 慈濟)
 意義: Activities of the entity should be separated from
the activities of its owner
 用途:
(1) 業主與企業之間的交易,應設業主往來(drawing)科
目入帳. (e.g., 張忠謨 vs.台積電)
(2)企業盈虧應獨立計算,不與業主混淆!
Entity: focus on business enterprises
 (1) Proprietorship, (2) Partnership, (3) Corporation
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獨資(Proprietorship)
Accounting 2010
意義: Owned by one person
=> ex. retail stores
特性:
 非法律個體 (Legal entity ), 業主與企業視為一體
=>The person liable for all debts of the business
=>Small amount of capital; owner receives all the
risks (profit or loss);
 為會計個體 (Accounting entity)(如這家商店淨賺**)
 Affairs of proprietorship should be separated from
the personal activities of the owners.
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合夥 (Partnership)
Accounting 2010
意義
 Owned by two or more persons; 二人以上互約出資,以
經營共同事業,並分攤損益之營利事業組織(如會計師,
律師事務所)
特性
 非法律個體(Legal entity)
業主對企業或是其他合夥人之債務付連帶無限清償
責任;
 為會計個體(Accounting entity)
Affairs of partnership should be separated from the
activities of the partners!
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公司 (Corporation)
Accounting 2010
 意義
 Organized as a separate legal entity under state corporation law
and having ownership divided into transferable shares of stock.
(ps. 我國以營利為目的,依照公司法組織,登記,成立之社團法人)
 特性





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Legal entity (法人, 法律個體): 享有權利與承擔債務的能力
Limited liability: 以出資(股東所認股份)為限
Unlimited life
Shares are transferable
Other: 募集資金容易;所有權與經營權分離;政府管理嚴格
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Forms of Business Ownership
Accounting 2010
Proprietorship
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Partnership
Corporation
Generally owned
by one person.
Owned by two or
more persons.
Often small
service-type
businesses
Often retail and
service-type
businesses
Ownership
divided into
shares of stock
Owner receives
any profits,
suffers any
losses, and is
personally liable
for all debts.
Generally
unlimited
personal liability
Separate legal
entity organized
under state
corporation law
Limited liability
Partnership
agreement
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The Basic Accounting Equation
Accounting 2010
Assets
=
Liabilities
+
Owners’
Equity (OE)
Provides the underlying framework for recording and
summarizing economic events.
Assets are claimed by either creditors or owners.
Claims of creditors must be paid before ownership
claims.
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The Basic Accounting Equation
Accounting 2010
Assets
=
Liabilities
+
Owners’
Equity (OE)
Assets
Resources a business owns.
Provide future services or benefits=>lead to cash
inflow
Cash, Supplies, Equipment, truck, etc.
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The Basic Accounting Equation
Accounting 2010
Assets
=
Liabilities
+
Owners’
Equity (OE)
Liabilities
Creditors - party to whom money is owed.
Claims against assets: debts and obligations.
Accounts payable, Notes payable, etc.
債權人為對企業總資產具有請求權,而非對特定
(specific)資產!
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The Basic Accounting Equation
Accounting 2010
Assets
=
Liabilities
+
Owners’
Equity (OE)
Owners’ Equity
Ownership claim on total assets.
Referred to as residual equity.
Capital, Drawings, etc. (Proprietorship or Partnership).
Subdivisions of Owner’s Equity:
1. Capital or Investments by Owner (+)
2. Drawing (-)=> withdrawal
3. Revenues (+)
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4. Expenses (-)
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Owners’ Equity
 業主權益增加(Increase in owner’s equity)
Accounting 2010
 會因為業主投資(investment by owner)或收入(revenue)而增加
 Investment by owner: 業主將個人的資本投資於企業
 Revenues:
(a) The gross increases in OE that result from operating the
business (因獲利活動而導致權益增加) (e.g., sale, service,
rental of property, rent)
(b) Revenues =>an increase in an asset.
 業主權益減少(Decrease in owner’s equity)
 會因為業主提取(Drawing)或費用(Expense)而減少:
 Drawing: 業主從企業領取現金或其他資產供私人使用
 Expense:
(a) 經營企業而使業主權益減少的部分(付出或耗用的資產或勞務
e.g., cost of ingredients, wage, utility expense, interest
expense, …)
(b) Revenues > (< ) Expenses => Net income (Net loss)
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Using The Basic Accounting Equation
Accounting 2010
交易(Transactions)
 會計上所紀錄之企業發生的economic events.
分類
 外部交易(External transactions): 企業與其他外部企業
或個體之間所發生的交易.銷貨,進貨
 內部交易(Internal transactions): 企業內部所發生的交
易.原料加工為完成品
影響
 任一交易至少影響會計方程式中的三大項目之一
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Transactions
Accounting 2010
Problem: Barone’s Repair Shop was started on May 1 by
Nancy. Prepare a tabular analysis of the following
transactions for the month of May.
1. Invested $10,000 cash to start the repair shop.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
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Equity
+10,000
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Investment
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Transactions
2. Purchased equipment for $5,000 cash. Accounting 2010
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
2. -5,000
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Equity
+10,000
Investment
+5,000
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Transactions
3. Paid $400 cash for May office rent.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
3.
+10,000
Investment
+5,000
-400
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Equity
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
2. -5,000
Accounting 2010
-400
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Expense
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Transactions
Accounting 2010
4. Received $5,100 from customers for repair service.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
2. -5,000
3.
4.
+10,000
Investment
+5,000
-400
+5,100
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Equity
-400
+5,100
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Expense
Revenue
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Transactions
Accounting 2010
5. Withdrew $1,000 cash for personal use.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
2. -5,000
Equity
+10,000
Investment
+5,000
3.
4.
-400
+5,100
-400
+5,100
Expense
Revenue
5.
-1,000
-1,000
Drawings
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Transactions
Accounting 2010
6. Paid part-time employee salaries of $2,000.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
2. -5,000
3.
4.
Equity
+10,000
Investment
+5,000
-400
+5,100
-400
+5,100
Expense
Revenue
5. -1,000
6. -2,000
-1,000
-2,000
Drawings
Expense
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Transactions
Accounting 2010
7. Incurred $250 of advertising costs, on account.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
2. -5,000
3.
4.
Equity
+10,000
Investment
+5,000
-400
+5,100
-400
+5,100
Expense
Revenue
5. -1,000
6. -2,000
-1,000
-2,000
Drawings
Expense
7.
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+250
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-250
Expense
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Transactions
Accounting 2010
8. Provided $750 of repair services on account.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
+10,000
2. -5,000
3.
4.
Equity
Investment
+5,000
-400
+5,100
-400
+5,100
Expense
Revenue
5. -1,000
6. -2,000
-1,000
-2,000
Drawings
Expense
7.
8.
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+250
+750
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-250
+750
Expense
Revenue
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Transactions
Accounting 2010
9. Collected $120 cash for services previously billed.
Liabilities
Assets
Cash
Accounts
Accounts
Barone,
+ Receivable + Equipment = Payable + Capital
1. +10,000
+10,000
2. -5,000
3.
4.
Equity
Investment
+5,000
-400
+5,100
-400
+5,100
Expense
Revenue
5. -1,000
6. -2,000
-1,000
-2,000
Drawings
Expense
7.
8.
9.
+250
+750
+120
6,820 +
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-120
630 +
5,000 =
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250 +
-250
+750
Expense
Revenue
12,200
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
認定, 紀錄與彙總會計資訊後,需編製四大財務報
表
 損益表(Income statement): 表達企業於特定期間的收
入愈費用,以及最終淨利或淨損的報表.
 保留盈餘表(Retained earnings statement ) or 業主權
益變動表(Owner’s equity statement): 表達企於特定期
間內,保留盈餘(業主權益)變動過程的報表.
 資產負債表(Balance sheet): 報導某企業在特定日的
assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity的報表.
 現金流量表(Statement of cash flows):表達企業於特定
期間的現金流入與流出的報表
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Income Statement
Barone’s Repair Shop
Income Statement
For the Month Ended May 31, 2007
Revenues:
Service revenue
Expenses:
Salary expense
Rent expense
Advertising expense
Total expenses
Net income
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$
5,850
$
2,000
400
250
2,650
3,200
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Reports the revenues
and expenses for a
specific period of time.
Net income : revenues
exceed expenses.
Net loss : expenses
exceed revenues.
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Income Statement
Owners’ Equity
Statement
Barone’s Repair Shop
Barone’s Repair Shop
Income Statement
Owners' Equity Statement
For the Month Ended May 31, 2007
For the Month Ended May 31, 2007
Revenues:
Service revenue
Expenses:
Salary expense
Rent expense
Advertising expense
Total expenses
Net income
$
5,850
$
2,000
400
250
2,650
3,200
Barone's, Capital May 1
Add: Investment
Net income
Less: Drawings
Barone's, Capital May 31
$
$
10,000
3,200
13,200
1,000
12,200
Net income is needed to determine
the ending balance in owner’s equity.
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Owners’ Equity
Statement
目的: 指出某期間Owner’s
equity 增減的原因
Barone’s Repair Shop
Owners' Equity Statement
For the Month Ended May 31, 2007
Barone's, Capital May 1
Add: Investment
Net income
Less: Drawings
Barone's, Capital May 31
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$
$
10,000
3,200
13,200
1,000
12,200
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Owners’ Equity
Statement
Balance Sheet
Barone’s Repair Shop
Barone’s Repair Shop
Balance Sheet
Owners' Equity Statement
May 31, 2007
Assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Equipment
Total assets
Liabilities
Accounts payable
Owners' Equity
Barone's, capital
Total liab. & equity
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$
$
$
For the Month Ended May 31, 2007
6,820
630
5,000
12,450
Barone's, Capital May 1
Add: Investment
Net income
Less: Drawings
Barone's, Capital May 31
250
12,200
$ 12,450
$
10,000
3,200
13,200
1,000
$ 12,200
The ending balance in owner’s equity is
needed in preparing the balance sheet
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Balance Sheet
目的:報導某特定日assets,
liabilities, and owner’s
equity.
Barone’s Repair Shop
Balance Sheet
May 31, 2007
Assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Equipment
Total assets
Liabilities
Accounts payable
Owners' Equity
Barone's, capital
Total liab. & equity
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$
$
6,820
630
5,000
12,450
$
250
$
12,200
12,450
順序: Assets listed at
the top, followed by
liabilities and owner’s
equity.
Total assets = Total
liabilities + Owner’s
equity.
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Balance Sheet
Statement of Cash Flows
Barone’s Repair Shop
Statement of Cash Flows
Barone’s Repair Shop
For the Month Ended May 31, 2007
Balance Sheet
Cash flow from Operations
Cash receipts from customers
Cash paid for expenses
Cash provided by operations
Cash flow from Investing
Purchase of equipment
Cash flow from Financing
Investment by owners
Drawings by owners
Cash provided by financing
Net increase in cash
May 31, 2007
Assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Equipment
Total assets
Liabilities
Accounts payable
Owners' Equity
Barone's, capital
Total liab. & equity
$
$
6,820
630
5,000
12,450
$
250
$
12,200
12,450
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5,220
(2,400)
2,820
(5,000)
10,000
(1,000)
9,000
6,820
Cash balance, May 1
Cash balance, May 31
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$
$
6,820
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Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Information for a
specific period of time.
Statement of Cash Flows
Answers the following:
1. Where did cash come
from?
2. What was cash used
for?
3. What was the change
in the cash balance?
Barone’s Repair Shop
Statement of Cash Flows
For the Month Ended May 31, 2007
Cash flow from Operations
Cash receipts from customers
Cash paid for expenses
Cash provided by operations
Cash flow from Investing
Purchase of equipment
Cash flow from Financing
Investment by owners
Drawings by owners
Cash provided by financing
Net increase in cash
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5,220
(2,400)
2,820
(5,000)
10,000
(1,000)
9,000
6,820
Cash balance, May 1
Cash balance, May 31
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$
$
6,820
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Financial Statements
Review Question:
Accounting 2010
Which of the following financial statements is
prepared as of a specific date?
a. Balance sheet.
b. Income statement.
c. Owner's equity statement.
d. Statement of cash flows.
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會計循環
Accounting 2010





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Define debits and credits
Use in recording business transactions
Journalizing the accounts
Adjusting the accounts
Closing the accounts
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The Account (帳戶、會計科目)
Accounting 2010
會計上用來記錄各項資產、負債、業主權益、收
入及費損等會計要素增減的工具.
 如 cash, salaries expense, accounts payable等各項目
, 都有自己專屬的account.
 借方、貸方只是表示左右, 帳戶的左方稱「借方」
(Debit side), 右方稱「貸方」(Credit side).
 Account的格式如同英文字母的「T」或中文的「丁」,
因此又稱T字帳或丁字帳.
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T Account
Accounting 2010
An account consists of
 The title of the account
 借方 (Debit side) =>左方=>簡寫為Dr.
 貸方 (Credit side)=>右方=>簡寫為Cr.
(約定成俗)
 The alignment of these parts resembles the letter T =
T account
Title of Account
Left or debit side
Debit balance
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Right or credit side
Credit balance
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Debiting an Account
Accounting 2010
Example: The owner makes an initial investment of $15,000 to
start the business.
=> Cash is debited as the owner’s Capital is credited.
Cash
Debits
Credits
15,000
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Crediting an Account
Accounting 2010
Example: Monthly rent of $7,000 is paid.
=> Cash is credited as Rent Expense is debited.
Cash
Debits
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Credits
7,000
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Debiting and Crediting an Account
Accounting 2010
Example: Cash is debited for $15,000 and credited
for $7,000, leaving a debit balance of
$8,000.
Cash
Debits
15,000
8,000
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Credits
7,000
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Double-entry System (複式簿記)
Accounting 2010
左借右貸, 有借就有貸 (A = L + OE)
Total debits always equal the total credits.
The accounting equation will always stay in
balance.
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Normal Balances – Assets and Liabilites
Accounting 2010
Assets
Liabilities
Increase
Decrease
Decrease
Increase
Debit
Credit
Debit
Credit
Normal
Balance
Normal
Balance
每一帳戶都有正常餘額(Normal balance),可能為右,也可能為左.
正常餘額在右(左)者,不應出現借(貸)餘.
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Normal Balances – Owner’s Capital
Accounting 2010
Owner’s Capital
Decrease
Debit
Increase
Credit
Normal
Balance
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Normal Balances – Owner’s Drawing
Accounting 2010
Owner’s Drawing
Debits
Credits
Increase owner’s drawing
Decrease owner’s drawing
Normal
Balance
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Normal Balances – Revenues and Expenses
Accounting 2010
Revenues
Decrease
Debit
Expenses
Increase
Credit
Normal
Balance
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Increase
Debit
Decrease
Credit
Normal
Balance
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Accounting 2010
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會計循環(Accounting cycle)
Accounting 2010
會計工作週而復始,每期都是從分錄開始,到編
製報表為止。
 「分錄」 (Journalizing)
 「過帳」 (Posting)
 「試算」 (Taking trial balance)
 「調整」 (Adjusting)
 「結帳」 (Closing)
 「編表」 (Preparing financial statements)
2010/09/13
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48
會計循環(Accounting cycle)
Accounting 2010
 分錄(Journalizing)
 每筆交易發生時, 須根據原始憑證, 區分借記、或貸記科目, 並衡量
交易金額, 記入帳簿, 這項工作稱為「分錄」, 而用來記載交易的帳
簿,稱為「分錄簿」, 或「日記簿(Journal) 」
 過帳(Posting)
 交易記入分錄簿後,再把每一科目分類集中, 記入分類帳中,稱為
「過帳」, 供過帳使用的帳簿, 稱為「分類帳(Ledger)」
 試算(Taking trial balance)
 驗證分錄及過帳的工作是否正確的工作, 稱為「試算」. 而試算時
將各個帳戶彙總製成的表, 稱為「試算表 (Trial balance)
2010/09/13
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49
會計循環(Accounting cycle)
Accounting 2010
 調整(Adjusting)
 會計上某些帳項, 會隨著時間經過而變化, 為使每個科目能正確表
示編表時的實際情況, 應該定期整理、修正, 這項工作稱「調整」
 結帳(Closing)
 會計期間終了時, 將收益及費損帳戶清結, 計算盈虧. 並明確列示各
項資產、負債、及業主權益帳戶的餘額, 結轉下期連續記載. 這項
工作, 稱為「結帳」.
 編表(Preparing financial statements)
 會計期間結束應將期間內所有交易彙總列表
 根據收益及費損帳戶編製損益表
 根據資產、負債、及業主權益帳戶編製資產負債表
 根據有關帳戶變動的情形編製現金流量表、及業主權益變動表
或保留盈餘表。
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50
Journalizing (分錄)
Accounting 2010
 寫分錄(Journalizing)
 將各交易對會計要素的影響,根據借貸法則,按序記入日記簿內的紀
錄.
 每一交易都要寫分錄, 所寫的內容稱為分錄(Journal
entries).
 日記簿=分錄簿=流水帳=原始記錄簿(Original record)=序
時帳簿(Chronological record)
 A complete entry consists of:
 交易發生的日期(the date of the transaction)
 借記與貸記之科目名稱與金額(the accounts and amounts to be
debited and credited)
 每一交易的摘要與說明(a brief explanation of the transaction).
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Technique of Journalizing
Accounting 2010
The date of the transaction is entered into the date column.
J1
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Sept. 1
1
2010/09/13
Account Titles and Explanation
Cash
R. Neal, Capital
(Invested cash in business)
Computer Equipment
Cash
(Purchased equipment for
cash)
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Ref.
Debit
Credit
15,000
15,000
7,000
7,000
52
Technique of Journalizing
Accounting 2010
 The debit account title is entered at the extreme left margin
of the Account Titles and Explanation column.
 The credit account title is indented on the next line.
J1
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Sept. 1
1
2010/09/13
Account Titles and Explanation
Cash
R. Neal, Capital
(Invested cash in business)
Computer Equipment
Cash
(Purchased equipment for
cash)
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Ref.
Debit
Credit
15,000
15,000
7,000
7,000
53
Technique of Journalizing
Accounting 2010
A brief explanation of the transaction is given.
J1
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Sept. 1
Account Titles and Explanation
Cash
R. Neal, Capital
(Invested cash in business)
1 Computer Equipment
Cash
(Purchased equipment for
cash)
2010/09/13
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Ref.
Debit
Credit
15,000
15,000
7,000
7,000
54
Technique of Journalizing
Accounting 2010
類頁欄位(Ref.)是空白的,直到要過入分類帳時,才填入所過入的
分類帳的頁碼
J1
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Sept. 1
Account Titles and Explanation
Cash
R. Neal, Capital
(Invested cash in business)
1 Computer Equipment
Cash
(Purchased equipment for
cash)
2010/09/13
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Ref.
Debit
Credit
15,000
15,000
7,000
7,000
55
過帳 (Posting)
Accounting 2010
 意義
 將日記帳(Journal)之分錄(entry)內容,轉記至相同帳戶名稱之分類
帳(Ledger)的程序.
 分類帳是按各科目分類整理, 再分別列示.
 分類帳屬於會計「橫的」記錄, 與日記簿按時間的先後, 而為「縱
的」記錄有別.
 步驟
 日記簿中之借記科目, 金額, 日期, 頁次, 轉記入分類帳相對應部分,
並在日記簿類頁欄中, 記入所過分類帳科目之編號.
 日記簿中之貸記科目, 金額, 日期, 頁次, 轉記入分類帳相對應部分,
並在日記簿類頁欄中, 記入所過分類帳科目之編號.
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分類帳 (The Ledger)
Accounting 2010
 意義
 由企業所有會計科目或帳戶所組成的帳冊.
 目的
 在使日記簿內各項分錄所記載的同一科目,得以彙總核計.
 分類
 總分類帳(General ledger): 以每一會計科目為分類基準, 所設置之
整體性帳簿;總分類帳應包括企業所有應用之科目. (e.g., 應收帳款)
 明細分類帳(Subsidiary ledger): 每一總分帳的會計科目,再按細目
分設之分類帳,以為輔助之用. (e.g., 應收帳款-甲, 應收帳款-乙, 應
收帳款-丙)
 總分類帳餘額=各明細帳餘額之加總
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總分類帳與明細分類帳
Accounting 2010
Assets
Equipment
Land
Supplies
Cash
2010/09/13
Liabilities
Interest Payable
Salaries Payable
Accounts Payable
Notes Payable
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Owners’
Equity
Salaries Expense
Service Revenue
Common Stock
Retained Earnings
58
Example: 會計科目表(Chart of Accounts)
Accounting 2010
會計科目表為所有會計科目與其編號的表格.
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Posting
Accounting 2010
The process of transferring amounts from the journal to
the ledger accounts.
General Journal
Date
Oct. 1
Account Title
Cash
J1
Ref.
Debit
101
15,000
Hanshew, Capital
Credit
15,000
(Owner's investment in business)
General Ledger
Cash
Date
Explanation
Oct. 1 Owner investment
2010/09/13
Ref.
J1
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Debit
15,000
Acct. No. 101
Credit
Balance
15,000
60
Example: Investment of Cash by Stockholders
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 1, C. R. Byrd 投資 $10,000 現金成立Pioneer
Advertising Agency Inc., 提供廣告服務
The asset Cash is increased $10,000, and stockholders’
equity is increased $10,000.
Debits increase assets: debit Cash $10,000.
Credits increase stockholders’ equity: credit Byrd,
Capital $10,000.
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61
Investment of Cash by Stockholders
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 1
Account Titles and Explanation
Cash
Byrd, Capital
(Owner’s investment of cash
in business )
Ref.
101
301
Debit
10,000
Credit
10,000
POSTING
Oct.
2010/09/13
1
Cash
10,000
101
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Byrd, Capital
Oct. 1
301
10,000
62
Purchase of Office Equipment
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 1, 購買Office Equipment $5,000 ,簽發3個月期
,利率12%, $5,000的應付票據( note payable)
The asset Office Equipment is increased $5,000, and
the liability Notes Payable is increased $5,000.
Debits increase assets: debit Office Equipment $5,000.
Credits increase liabilities: credit Notes Payable $5,000.
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63
Purchase of Office Equipment
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 1
Account Titles and Explanation
Office Equipment
Notes Payable
(Issued 3-month, 12% note
for office equipment)
Ref.
157
200
Debit Credit
5,000
5,000
POSTING
Oct.
2010/09/13
Office
Equipment
1
5,000
157
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Notes Payable
Oct. 1
200
5,000
64
Receipt of Cash for Future Service
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 2, 自客戶R. Knox,預收現金 $1,200 , 所提供的
廣告預期要到12/31完成.
The asset Cash is increased $1,200; the liability
Unearned Fees is increased $1,200 because the service
has not been rendered yet. Note that although many
liabilities have the word “payable” in their title,
Unearned Fees are considered a liability even though
the word payable is not used.
Debits increase assets: debit Cash $1,200.
Credits increase liabilities: credit Unearned Fees $1,200.
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65
Receipt of Cash for Future Service
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 2
Account Titles and Explanation
Cash
Unearned Revenues
(Received advance from R.
Knox for future services)
Ref.
101
209
Debit Credit
1,200
1,200
POSTING
Oct. 1
2
2010/09/13
Cash
10,000
1,200
101
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Unearned Renvenues
209
Oct. 2
1,200
66
Payment of Monthly Rent
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit-Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 3, office rent for October is paid in cash, $900.
The expense Rent is increased $900 because the
payment pertains only to the current month;
The asset Cash is decreased $900.
Debits increase expenses: debit Rent Expense $900.
Credits decrease assets: credit Cash $900.
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67
Payment of Monthly Rent
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 3
Account Titles and Explanation
Rent Expense
Cash
(Paid October rent)
Ref.
729
101
Debit
900
Credit
900
POSTING
Oct. 1
2
2010/09/13
Cash
10,000 Oct. 3
1,200
101
900
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Rent Expense
Oct. 3 900
729
68
Payment for Insurance
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 4, 支付一年期$600之保單(insurance policy),
有效期間至 September 30.
由於保險期間及於往後月份,因此資產: 預付保費
(Prepaid Insurance)增加 $600; the asset Cash is
decreased $600. 凡支出之費用的效益期間大於
一期以上時,由於具有未來經濟效益,故應綽為資
產,借記預付費用(prepaid expenses) or預付款項
( prepayments)等資產科目.
Debits increase assets: debit Prepaid Insurance $600.
Credits decrease assets: credit Cash $600.
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69
Payment for Insurance
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 4
Account Titles and Explanation
Prepaid Insurance
Cash
(Paid one-year policy;
effective date October 1)
Ref.
130
101
Debit Credit
600
600
POSTING
Oct. 1
2
2010/09/13
Cash
10,000 Oct. 3
1,200
4
101
900
600
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Prepaid Insurance
Oct. 4
600
130
70
Purchase of Supplies on Credit
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 5,向Aero Supply賒購3-month
的廣告用品$2,500
The asset Advertising Supplies is increased $2,500;
The liability Accounts Payable is increased $2,500.
Debits increase assets: debit Advertising Supplies $2,500.
Credits increase liabilities: credit Accounts Payable $2,500.
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71
Purchase of Supplies on Credit
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 5
Account Titles and Explanation
Advertising Supplies
Accounts Payable
(Purchased supplies on
account from Aero Supply)
Ref.
126
201
Debit Credit
2,500
2,500
POSTING
Advertising Supplies
Oct. 5
2,500
2010/09/13
126
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Accounts Payable
Oct. 5
201
2,500
72
Hiring of Employees
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 9, 聘4名員工.10/15上班,每位週薪
$500, 每週工作5天, 每兩週付一次薪水, 第一次
付薪日為October 26.
並未發生企業交易, 僅是老闆與員工之協議, 自
10/15開始上班後才有交易發生, 目前無分錄.
A debit-credit analysis is not needed because
there is no accounting entry.
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73
Withdrawal of Cash by Owner
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
On October 20, C. R. Byrd withdraws $500
cash for personal use.
The drawings account is increased $500;
The asset Cash is decreased $500.
Debits increase drawings: debit C. R. Byrd Drawings $500.
Credits decrease assets: credit Cash $500.
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74
Withdrawal of Cash by Owner
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 20
Account Titles and Explanation
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
Cash
(Withdrew cash for personal
use)
Ref.
306
101
Debit Credit
500
500
POSTING
Oct. 1
2
2010/09/13
Cash
10,000 Oct. 3
1,200
4
20
101
900
600
500
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C. R. Byrd, Drawing
Oct. 20
500
306
75
Payment of Salaries
Accounting 2010
Transaction
October 26, 支付積欠employee salaries
of $4,000 (See October 9 transaction.)
Basic
Analysis
The expense account Salaries Expense is increased $4,000;
the asset Cash is decreased $4,000.
Debit -Credit
Analysis
Debits increase expenses: debit Salaries Expense $4,000.
Credits decrease assets: credit Cash $4,000.
2010/09/13
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76
Payment of Salaries
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 26
Account Titles and Explanation
Salaries Expense
Cash
(Paid salaries to date)
Ref.
726
101
Debit Credit
4,000
4,000
POSTING
Oct. 1
2
2010/09/13
Cash
10,000 Oct. 3
1,200
4
20
26
101
900
600
500
4,000
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Salaries Expense
Oct. 26
4,000
726
77
Receipt of Cash for Fees Earned
Accounting 2010
Transaction
Basic
Analysis
Debit -Credit
Analysis
2010/09/13
October 31, 收到Copa Company支付十
月份廣告服務的收入$10,000
The asset Cash is increased $10,000;
The revenue Fees Earned is increased $10,000.
Debits increase assets: debit Cash $10,000.
Credits increase revenues: credit Fees Earned $10,000.
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78
Receipt of Cash for Fees Earned
Accounting 2010
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Cash
Fees Earned
(Received cash for fees
earned)
Ref.
101
400
Debit Credit
10,000
10,000
POSTING
Oct. 1
2
31
2010/09/13
Cash
10,000 Oct. 3
1,200
4
10,000
20
26
101
900
600
500
4,000
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Fees Earned
Oct. 31
400
10,000
79
試算表 (A Trial Balance)
Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Trial Balance
October 31, 2008
Cash
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
1.
Office Equipment
Notes Payable
2.
Accounts Payable
3.
Unearned Fees
C. R. Byrd, Capital
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
Fees Earned
Salaries Expense
Rent Expense
2010/09/13
Debit
$ 15,200
2,500
600
列式所有會計科目名稱與餘額 5,000
Credit
借方與貸方個別予以加總
驗證貸方與借方總額是否相同
$ 5,000
2,500
1,200
10,000
500
10,000
4,000
900
$ 28,700
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$ 28,700
80
會計期間假設(Time Period Assumption)
Accounting 2010
會計將企業生命劃分段落,以便計算損益, 編制報
表, 俾及時提供報表.
.....
Jan.
2010/09/13
Feb.
Mar.
Apr.
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Dec.
81
會計基礎 (Accounting Basis)
Accounting 2010
 指會計上對於收益與費用歸屬期間之認定 所用的標準,
並為入帳之依據。
 種類:
 現金基礎(Cash basis)
 Revenue is recorded when cash is received=>收錢=>收入
 Expenses are recorded when cash is paid=>付錢=>費用
 應計基礎(Accrued basis):
 收益實現原則(Revenue recognition) =>收入,
 Revenues are recognized when earned, rather than when cash
is received
 配合原則(Matching principles) =>費用
 Expenses are recognized when incurred, rather than when paid
 GAAP requires accrual basis accounting
 Cash basis often causes misleading financial statements.
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Revenue Recognition Principle
Accounting 2010
 意義:用來決定何期應該認
列收入的指導原則.
 通常在賺得(earned)的時
候認列,因為主要的獲利
過程(關鍵階段)已完成
=> Not just when money is
exchanged.
 例如:
 Service business: at the
time the service is
performed.
 買賣業: At the time product
is sold.
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83
The Matching Principle
Accounting 2010
 Expense recognition is
the matching principle.
 意義
 Efforts (expenses) must be
matched with
accomplishments
(revenues).
 “Let the expenses
follow the revenues.”
=> 跟這筆收入有關的費用, 要
與這筆收入再同一其認列
=> 如此才知道”淨賺”多少
2010/09/13
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84
Timing Issues
Accounting 2010
GAAP relationships
in revenue and
expense recognition
2010/09/13
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85
The Basics of Adjusting Entries (調整)
Accounting 2010
意義與目的
 根據收益在earned期間認列,expense 在同期配合認列,
使財務報表適當表達正確經營成果, 所為之分錄
Revenues to be recorded in the period in which
they are earned(賺得)
Expenses to be recognized in the period in which
they are incurred(發生).
時機
 Required each time financial statements are prepared
(通常是期末)
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86
Types of Adjusting Entries
Accounting 2010
預付項目(Prepayments)
 預付費用(Prepaid expenses)
 預收收益(Unearned revenues)
應計項目(Accruals)
 應計收益(Accrued revenues)
 應計費用(Accrued expenses)
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87
預付項目(Prepayments)
Accounting 2010
預付費用(Prepaid expenses)
 係未享用財貨或勞務之前,先行支付現金之費用
 Expenses paid in cash - recorded as assets before
used or consumed(已耗用部份作為費用 =>incurred).
預收收益(Unearned Revenues) :
 指未提供財貨或勞務之前,已先行取得現金之收入
 Cash received - recorded as liabilities before the
revenue is earned (但已提供後為 收入=>earned!)
2010/09/13
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88
Prepaid Expenses
Accounting 2010
 預付費用
 Expenses paid in cash and recorded as assets before they are
used or consumed
 Prepaid expenses expire with the passage of time or through
use and consumption
 調整前, 資產高估(overstated), 費用低估(understated).
 The adjusting entry
=>Debit to an expense account, credit to an asset account.
 An asset-expense account relationship exists with prepaid
expenses.
 例子
 Supplies, insurance, advertising, rent, and depreciation.
2010/09/13
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89
Adjusting Entries for “Prepaid Expenses”
Accounting 2010
Increase (debit) an expense account and
Decrease (credit) an asset account.
2010/09/13
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90
Adjusting Entries for Prepayments
Supplies
Accounting 2010
ADJUSTMENT
October 31, an inventory count reveals that
$1,000 of $2,500 of supplies are still on hand.
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Advertising Supplies Expense
Advertising Supplies
(To record supplies used)
Debit Credit
1,500
1,500
POSTING
Advertising Supplies
Oct. 5
2,500 Oct. 31
1,500
31
1,000
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
Advertising Supplies Expense
Oct. 31
1,500
91
Adjusting Entries for Prepayments
Insurance
Accounting 2010
ADJUSTMENT
October 31, an analysis of the policy reveals
that $50 of insurance expires each month.
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Insurance Expense
Prepaid Insurance
(To record insurance
expired)
Debit Credit
50
50
POSTING
Prepaid Insurance
Oct. 4
31
2010/09/13
600 Oct. 31
10
50
Insurance Expense
Oct. 31
50
63
550
NTHUQF
92
Q&A
30
Accounting 2010
 On July 1, 2005, Bluestem Insurance Company
received $12,000 from a client for a 2-year
insurance policy.
 Instructions
 Prepare the necessary journal entries for Bluestem
on July 1 and December 31.
 Ans:
7/1
Cash
12,000
Unearned Insurance Revenue
12,000
12/31 Unearned Insurance Revenue
3,000
Insurance Revenue
3,000
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
93
預收收益 (Unearned Revenues)
Accounting 2010
 Revenues received and recorded as liabilities before
they are earned
 在尚未提供勞務前已預收現金,故列為負債.
 Earned by rendering a service to a customer.
 A liability-revenue account relationship exists with
unearned revenues.
 在做調整前,負債高估(overstated) and 收入低估
(understated).
 The adjusting entry
=>Debit to a liability account, credit to a revenue account.
 例子
 Rent, magazine subscriptions, 客戶之存入保證金( customer
deposits for future services), airline tickets, school tuition .
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
94
Adjusting Entries for “Unearned Revenues”
Accounting 2010
Decrease (debit) to a liability account and
Increase (credit) to a revenue account.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
95
Adjusting Entries for Prepayments
Unearned Revenues
Accounting 2010
ADJUSTMENT
October 31, analysis reveals that, of $1,200 in
fees, $400 has been earned in October.
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Unearned Revenue
Service Revenue
(To record revenue for services provided)
Debit Credit
400
400
POSTING
Unearned Revenue
Oct. 31
400 Oct. 2
31
2010/09/13
1,200
800
NTHUQF
Service Revenue
Oct. 31
31
10,000
400
96
Depreciation
Accounting 2010
 以合理且有系統的方式,將資產購入成本方攤在耐用期間
(Useful life)的程序, 稱為提列折舊, 各期分攤的成本稱為折
舊.
 設備或建築物的取得成本,視為預付長期勞務的支出, 故應
於受益期間分攤.
 Depreciation is an estimate rather than a factual
measurement of the cost that has expired.
 折舊性資產(Depreciable asset )
 金額較預期預付費用大,使用年限長。
 如: 房屋、機器、運輸設備、辦公設備
 為何攤提折舊?
 (1)使用時磨損 (2)技術進步、導致過時
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
97
Depreciation
Accounting 2010
Recording depreciation
 Debit Depreciation Expense
 Credit Accumulated Depreciation (Contra asset)
折舊金額之計算:
 使用直線法(Straight-line depreciation)
 (資產成本 – 殘值) / useful life
Accumulated Depreciation
Depreciation Expense
XXX
XXX
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
98
Depreciation
Accounting 2010
 Balance Sheet
 Accumulated Depreciation
is offset against the asset
account
 未直接貸計資產而貸計AD,
旨在保持下列資訊:
 原始購入成本,
 目前為止累積已折舊的
數字
 Asset --> accumulated
depreciation = book value.
 Book value is not equal to
market value.
2010/09/13
Balance Sheet
Oct. 31
Assets
NTHUQF
Equipment
5,000
Accumulated Depreciation
(40)
Net Equipment
4,960
99
Adjusting Entries for Prepayments
Depreciation
Accounting 2010
ADJUSTMENT
October 31, depreciation on the office equipment
is estimated to be $480 a year, or $40 per month.
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Depreciation Expense
Accumulated Depreciation - Office Equipment
(To record monthly depreciation)
Debit Credit
40
40
POSTING
Accumulated Depreciation Office Equipment
Oct. 31
40
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
Depreciation Expense
Oct. 31
40
100
Q&A
(30)
Accounting 2010
 Coat Company purchased equipment on June 1 for
$54,000, paying $12,000 cash and signing a 12%, 2-month
note for the remaining balance. The equipment is expected
to depreciate $12,000 each year. Coat Company prepares
monthly financial statements.
 Instructions
(a) Prepare the general journal entry to record the acquisition of the
equipment on June lst.
(b) Prepare any adjusting journal entries that should be made on June
30th.
(c) Show how the equipment will be reflected on Coat Company's
balance sheet on June 30th.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
101
Ans:
Accounting 2010
(a) Equipment
54,000
Cash
Note Payable
(b) Depreciation Expense
1,000
Accumulated Depreciation
(c)
Coat Company
Balance Sheet
June 30, xxxx
Property, plant and equipment
Office equipment
$ 54,000
Less: Accumulated Dep.
1,000
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
12,000
42,000
1,000
53,000
102
Adjusting Entries for Prepayments
Accounting 2010
Adjusting Entries
Prepaid Expenses
Asset
Expense
Unadjusted Credit
Balance
Adjusting
Entry (-)
Debit
Adjusting
Entry (+)
Unearned Revenues
Liability
Debit
Adjusting
Entry (-)
2010/09/13
Revenue
Unadjusted
Balance
Credit
Adjusting
Entry (+)
NTHUQF
103
應計項目(Accruals)
應計收益(Accrued Revenues)
Accounting 2010
 本期已實現但尚未收取之各項收入
 Revenues earned but not yet received in cash or
recorded
=>已提供勞務,或隨時間經過而賺取之收入(如租金),因尚
未收現,故期末應認補列為資產以承認此收入=>資產.
應計費用(Accrued Expenses)
 係指本期已發生而尚未支付的各項費用
 Expenses incurred but not yet paid in cash or
recorded
=>隨時間經過而發生之費用(如租金),因尚未付現,故期末
應認列為債以承認此費用=>負債.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
104
應計項目(Accruals)
Accounting 2010
Adjusting entries
 Required to record revenues earned and expenses
incurred in the current period
Adjusting entry for accruals
 Influence both a balance sheet and an income
statement account
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
105
應計收益(Accrued Revenues)
Accounting 2010
Accrued revenues
 Accumulate with the passing of time or through
services performed but not billed or collected
 An asset-revenue account relationship exists
 Prior to adjustment, assets and revenues are
understated
Adjusting entry
 Debit an asset account
 Credit a revenue account
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
106
Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Revenues”
Accounting 2010
Increase (debit) an asset account and
Increase (credit) a revenue account.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
107
Adjusting Entries for Accruals
Accrued Revenues Accounting 2010
ADJUSTMENT
October 31, the agency earned $200 for
advertising services that were not billed to
clients before October 31.
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Accounts Receivable
Service Revenue
(To accrue revenue for services provided)
Debit Credit
200
200
POSTING
Accounts Receivable
Oct. 31
200
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
Service Revenue
Oct. 31
31
31
31
10,000
400
200
10,600
108
Q&A
32
Accounting 2010
 Ward Realty is in the business of renting several apartment
buildings and prepares monthly financial statements. It has
been determined that 3 tenants in $600 per month
apartments and one tenant in the $1,000 per month
apartment had not paid their August rent as of August 31st.
 Prepare the required end-of-period adjusting entries
 Ans:
Rent Receivable
Rent Revenue
2010/09/13
2,800
2,800
NTHUQF
109
Accrued Expenses
Accounting 2010
Accrued expenses
 Expenses incurred but not paid yet
 A liability-expense account relationship exists
 Prior to adjustment, liabilities and expenses are
understated
 Ex: rent, interest, salaries, taxes.
Adjusting Entry
 Debit an expense account
 Credit a liability account
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
110
Adjusting Entries for “Accrued Expenses”
Accounting 2010
Increase (debit) an expense account and
Increase (credit) a liability account.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
111
Adjusting Entries for Accruals
Accrued Interest
Accounting 2010
ADJUSTMENT
October 31, the portion of the interest to be accrued on
a 3-month note payable is calculated to be $50.
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Interest Expense
Interest Payable
(To accrue interest on notes payable)
Debit Credit
50
50
POSTING
Interest Expense
Oct. 31
50
2010/09/13
Interest Payable
Oct. 31
NTHUQF
50
112
Adjusting Entries for Accruals
Accrued Salaries
Accounting 2010
ADJUSTMENT
October 31, accrued salaries are
calculated to be $1,200.
JOURNAL ENTRY
Date
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
Salaries Expense
Salaries Payable
(To record accrued salaries)
Debit Credit
1,200
1,200
POSTING
Salaries Expense
Oct. 26
4,000
31
1,200
31
5,200
2010/09/13
Salaries Payable
Oct. 31
NTHUQF
1,200
113
Q & A 37
Accounting 2010
 On Friday of each week, Noble Company pays its factory
personnel weekly wages amounting to $35,000 for a fiveday work week.
 Instructions
(a) Prepare the necessary adjusting entry at year end, assuming
December 31 falls on Wednesday.
(b) Prepare the journal entry for payment of the week's wages on the
payday which is Friday, January 2 of the next year.
 Ans:
(a) Wages Expense
Wages Payable
(b) Wages Expense
Wages Payable
Accumulated Depreciation
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
21,000
21,000
14,000
21,000
35,000
114
Summary of Adjusting Entries
Accounting 2010
Type of
Adjustment
1 Prepaid
expenses
2 Unearned
revenues
3 Accrued
revenues
4 Accrued
expenses
2010/09/13
Account
Relationship
Assets and
expenses
Liabilities and
revenues
Assets and
revenues
Expenses and
liabilities
Accounts before
Adjustment
Assets overstated
Expenses understated
Liabilities overstated
Revenues understated
Assets understated
Revenues understated
Expenses understated
Liabilities understated
NTHUQF
Adjusting
Entry
Dr. Expenses
Cr. Assets
Dr. Liabilities
Cr. Revenues
Dr. Assets
Cr. Revenues
Dr. Expenses
Cr. Liabilities
115
調整後試算表(Adjusted Trial Balance)
Accounting 2010
時機
 Prepared after all adjusting entries have been
journalized and posted
目的
 Prove equality of the total debit and credit balances in
the ledger after adjustments have been made
Financial statements
 Prepared directly from the adjusted trial balance
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
116
Trial Balance and Adjusted Trial Balance Compared
Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Adjusted Trial Balance
October 31, 2008
Cash
Accounts Receivable
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Accumulated Depreciation - Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Interest Payable
Unearned Revenue
Salaries Payable
C. R. Byrd, Capital
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
Service Revenue
Salaries Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Rent Expense
Insurance Expense
Interest Expense
Depreciation Expense
Before
Adjustment
Debit
Credit
$ 15,200
2,500
600
5,000
$ 5,000
2,500
1,200
10,000
500
10,000
4,000
900
$ 28,700
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
$ 28,700
After
Adjustment
Debit
Credit
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
5,000
$
40
5,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
10,000
500
10,600
5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
$ 30,190 $ 30,190
117
Preparing Financial Statements
Accounting 2010
Income statement
 Use the revenue and expense accounts
Owner’s Equity Statement
 Use the owner’s capital and drawing accounts and
the net income (or net loss) from the Income
Statement
Balance sheet
 Use asset and liability accounts and ending owner’s
capital balance reported in Owner’s Equity Statement
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
118
Preparation of I/S and O/E from the
Adjusted Trial Balance Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Adjusted Trial Balance
October 31, 2008
Cash
Accounts Receivable
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Accumulated Depreciation - Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Interest Payable
Unearned Revenue
Salaries Payable
C. R. Byrd, Capital
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
Service Revenue
Salaries Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Rent Expense
Insurance Expense
Interest Expense
Depreciation Expense
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
Debit
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
5,000
Credit
$
40
5,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
10,000
500
10,600
5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
$ 30,190
$ 30,190
119
Income Statement
Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Income Statement
For the Month Ended October 31, 2008
Revenues
Fees earned
$ 10,600
Expenses
Salaries expense
Advertising supplies expense
Rent expense
Insurance expense
Interest expense
Depreciation expense
Total expenses
Net income
$ 5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
7,740
$ 2,860
The income statement is prepared from the revenue and expense accounts.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
120
Preparation of I/S and O/E from the
Adjusted Trial Balance Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Adjusted Trial Balance
October 31, 2008
Cash
Accounts Receivable
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Accumulated Depreciation – Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Interest Payable
Unearned Revenue
Salaries Payable
C. R. Byrd, Capital
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
Service Revenue
Salaries Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Rent Expense
Insurance Expense
Interest Expense
Depreciation Expense
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
Debit
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
5,000
Credit
$
40
5,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
10,000
500
10,600
5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
$ 30,190
$ 30,190
121
Owner’s Equity Statement
Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Owner’s Equity Statement
For the Month Ended October 31, 2008
C.R. Byrd, Capital, October 1
Add: Investments
Net income
$
$ 10,000
2,860
Less: Drawings
C.R . Byrd, Capital, October 31
-0-
12,860
12,860
500
$ 12,360
The owner’s equity statement is prepared from the owner’s capital and
drawing accounts and the net income (or net loss) shown in the income
statement.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
122
Preparation of B/S from the
Adjusted Trial Balance Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Adjusted Trial Balance
October 31, 2008
Cash
Accounts Receivable
Advertising Supplies
Prepaid Insurance
Office Equipment
Accumulated Depreciation – Office Equipment
Notes Payable
Accounts Payable
Interest Payable
Unearned Revenue
Salaries Payable
C. R. Byrd, Capital
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
Service Revenue
Salaries Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Rent Expense
Insurance Expense
Interest Expense
Depreciation Expense
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
Debit
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
5,000
Credit
$
40
5,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
10,000
500
10,600
5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
$ 30,190
$ 30,190
123
Balance Sheet
Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Balance Sheet
October 31, 2008
Liabilities and Owner’s Equity
Assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Advertising supplies
Prepaid insurance
Office equipment
Less: Accumulated
depreciation
Total assets
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
$ 5,000
40
4,960
$ 21,910
Liabilities
Notes payable
Accounts payable
Interest payable
Unearned fees
Salaries payable
Total liabilities
Owner’s equity
C.R. Byrd, Capital
Total liabilities and owner’s
equity
$ 5,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
9,550
12,360
$ 21,910
The balance sheet is then prepared from the asset and liability accounts and the
ending owner’s capital balance as reported in the owner’s equity statement.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
124
結帳: Temporary & Permanent Accounts
Accounting 2010
(NOMINAL)
2010/09/13
(REAL)
NTHUQF
125
暫時性與永久性帳戶
Accounting 2010
永久性或實帳戶(Permanent or real account)
 帳戶本身隨著企業永續經營而持續存在, 期末並不消失,
而在下期仍繼續存在.
 如資產, 負債, 股東權益(如股本與保留盈餘).
暫時性或虛帳戶(Temporary account)
 只存在特定一個會計期間之帳戶, 目的僅在其供業主權
益變動之相關資訊, 俟期間結束, 此帳戶即可結束, 其餘
額即歸至業主權益.
 如收入, 費用, drawing等科目
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
126
結帳分錄(Closing entries)
Accounting 2010
 結帳(Closing)
 期末將虛帳戶餘額轉入業主權益,使虛帳戶歸零, 以便下期重新記
載相關交易金額之程序, 至於實帳戶則不結帳.
 結帳分錄的分錄與過帳, 是會計循環(accounting cycle)中必要的步
驟.
 期末將淨利與drawing轉入損益彙總(保留盈餘),以結清所有虛帳戶.
 本期損益/損益彙總(Income Summary)
 為一暫時性科目,企業將收入與費用先彙總並結轉至此科目,再一次
將餘額轉至永久性之保留盈餘科目.
 在日記簿之調整分錄之後,用結帳分錄之標題加以區隔後,
即可將結帳分錄依次寫入.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
127
結帳分錄圖
Accounting 2010
(INDIVIDUAL)
EXPENSES
(INDIVIDUAL)
REVENUES
2
1
OWNER’S
CAPITAL
1. 將收入轉入損益彙總. => 借記收入科目, 貸記損益彙總科目.
2. 再將費用轉入損益彙總. => 借記損益彙總科目, 貸記費用科目.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
128
結帳分錄圖
Accounting 2010
INCOME
SUMMARY
3
OWNER’S
CAPITAL
3. 最後將損益彙總轉入Owner’s Capital.
a. 有正的損益彙總時, 借記損益彙總, 貸記Owner’s Capital
b. 有負的損益彙總時, 借記Owner’s Capital, 貸記損益彙總
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
129
結帳分錄圖
Accounting 2010
OWNER’S
CAPITAL
4
OWNER’S
DRAWING
4. 將提取轉入Owner’s Capital.
=>借記Owner’s Capital, 貸記提取.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
130
Closing the Books
Accounting 2010
Note:
Owner’s Drawing is closed
directly to Capital and not
to Income Summary
because Owner’s Drawing
is not an expense.
2010/09/13
Owner’s Capital is a
permanent account; all
other accounts are
temporary accounts.
NTHUQF
131
結帳分錄的分錄製作
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
Account Titles and Explanation
2005
(1)
Oct. 31 Service Revenue
Income Summary
(To close revenue account)
INCOME SUMMARY
Date
2005
Oct. 31
31
31
2010/09/13
Explanation
Debit
NO.400
Credit
10,600
Balance
10,600
NTHUQF
Date
2005
Oct. 31
31
Ref.
Debit
Credit
10,600
400
350
10,600
Service Revenue
Explanation
NO. 350
Debit
Credit Balance
10,600
10,600
–0–
132
結帳分錄的分錄製作
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Oct. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
(2)
Income Summary
Salaries Expense
Advertising Supplies Expense
Rent Expense
Insurance Expense
Interest Expense
Depreciation Expense
(To close expense
accounts)
INCOME SUMMARY
Date
2005
Oct. 31
31
2010/09/13
Explanation
Debit
NTHUQF
Debit
350
726
631
729
722
905
911
7,740
Credit
5,200
1,500
900
50
50
40
NO. 350
Credit
10,600
7,740
Ref.
Balance
10,600
2,860
133
結帳分錄的分錄製作
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Oct. 1
Account Titles and Explanation
(3)
Income Summary
C. R. BYRD CAPITAL
(To close net income to
capital)
NO. 350
INCOME SUMMARY
Date
2005
Oct. 31
31
31
2010/09/13
Explanation
Debit
Credit Balance
10,600
7,740
2,860
10,600
2,860
–0–
NTHUQF
Ref.
Debit
350
301
2,860
Credit
2,860
C. R. BYRD CAPITAL
Date
2005
Oct. 31
31
Explanation
Debit
NO. 301
Credit Balance
2,860
–0–
2,860
134
結帳分錄的分錄製作
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Oct. 1
Date
2005
Oct. 31
31
2010/09/13
Account Titles and Explanation
(3)
C. R. BYRD CAPITAL
C. R. BYRD DRWAING
(To close dividends to
capital)
C. R. BYRD DRWAING
Explanation Debit
NO. 350
Credit Balance
500
500
–0–
NTHUQF
Ref.
350
301
Debit
Credit
500
500
C. R. BYRD CAPITAL
Date
2005
Oct. 31
31
Explanation
Debit
500
Credit
NO. 301
Balance
2,860
2,360
135
結帳分錄的過帳
Accounting 2010
 虛帳戶結帳後,餘額都為0.
 保留盈餘餘額為累賺未分配的金額.
 Income Summary旨在期末出現,用來結帳,平時不會出現=>故無
分錄與過帳的問題.
 計算暫時性帳戶餘額, 於合計餘額下方劃記雙線, 以表示
結清本期餘額.
 永久性帳戶(資產, 負債, 業主權益等帳戶)期末餘額不結
清, 於本期金額下方劃記單線, 再將餘額記在單線下方.
其餘額轉入下期.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
136
結帳分錄的過帳
Accounting 2010
Salaries Expense
4,000
(2)
5,200
1,200
5,200
726
(1)
5,200
Advertising Supplies
Expense
1,500
(2)
1,500
Rent Expense
900
(2)
1
2
Service Revenue
10,600
10,000
400
200
10,600
10,600
400
631
(2)
(3)
729
900
Income Summary
7,740
(1)
10,600
2,860
10,600
350
10,600
3
Insurance Expense
50
(2)
722
50
(4)
2
Interest Expense
50
(2)
C. R. Byrd, Capital
500
10,000
(3)
2,860
905
301
12,360
50
4
Depreciation Expense
40
(2)
40
2010/09/13
C. R. Byrd, Drawing
500
(4)
500
711
NTHUQF
306
137
結帳後試算表(post-closing trial balance)
Accounting 2010
 目的:
 驗算這些要結轉下一期的永久性帳戶的借貸雙方是否一致
 結帳後試算表上皆為實帳戶, 可作為編製資產負債表之依據。
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
138
Summary of the Accounting Cycle
Accounting 2010
1. 分析企業的交易
2010/09/13
9. Prepare a post-closing trial
balance (編制結帳後試算表)
2. Journalize the transactions
(將交易寫成分錄)
8. Journalize and post closing
entries (寫結帳分錄並過帳)
3. Post to ledger accounts
(過到分類帳)
7. Prepare financial statements
4. Prepare a trial balance
(編制調整前試算表)
6. Prepare an adjusted trial
balance(編制調整後試算表)
5. Journalize and post adjusting
entries (寫調整分錄並過帳)
NTHUQF
139
資產負債表之標準分類
Accounting 2010
會計科目加以分類成各別小組以有效利用財務報
表
資產負債表之標準分類如下:
Assets
流動資產(Current Assets)
長期投資(Long-Term Investments)
財產, 廠房, 設備(Property, Plant and Equipment)
無形資產(Intangible Assets)
2010/09/13
Liabilities and Owner’s Equity
流動負債(Current Liabilities)
長期負債(Long-Term Liabilities)
股東權益(Owner’s (Stockholders’) Equity
NTHUQF
140
流動資產(Current Assets)
Accounting 2010
 係指現金及預期在一年或一個營業週期中可即時變現, 出
售, 或消耗掉的其他資產.
 如: A/R, Prepaid expense, etc.
 流動資產項目中, 按該項目的liquidity高低,而由高而低列示




現金
有價證券(Short-term investment)
應收款項(Receivables)
預付費用(Prepaid expense)
 企業的營業週期(Operating cycle):
 This is the average time required to go from cash to cash in
producing revenues.
 此為企業短期償債能力之評估依據.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
141
長期投資與財產, 廠房與設備
Accounting 2010
長期投資(Long-term investments):
 預期變現時間超過一年或一個營業週期以上的資產.
 例如:Investments in stock or bonds of another
company
財產, 廠房與設備(Property, plant, and
equipment)
 為耐久性有形資產, 是供企業從事經營而非銷售之用.
 例如: Land, buildings, and machinery等.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
142
無形資產(Intangible assets)
Accounting 2010
無實體存在的非流動性資產.
例如
 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, or trade names,
gives the holder exclusive right of use for a specified
period of time (專利, 版權, 商標, 商業名稱專用權等, 這
些接賦予持有人於法定期間內禁止他人使用之排他性
權利).
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
143
流動負債(Current liabilities)
Accounting 2010
 可預期能在一年內或一個營業週期內以流動資產或產生其
他流動負債來加以償還的債務.
 Ex. Accounts payable, wages payable, interest payable and
current maturities of long-term debt(一個營業週期內到期的長期
負債).
 流動負債是評估企業流動性(Liquidity )之重要依據.
 Liquidity - ability to pay obligations expected to be due within the
next year.
 Usually list notes payable first, followed by accounts
payable. Other items follow in order of magnitude.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
144
長期負債(long-term liabilities)
Accounting 2010
預期須在一年後或一個營業週期以後, 才需償還的
債務.
 應付公司債(bonds payable),
 抵押借款(mortgages payable),
 長期應付票據(Long-term notes payable),
 租賃負債(lease liabilities).
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
145
業主權益
Accounting 2010
依據組織型態之不同, 業主權益的部分也有異.
 獨資(Proprietorship)企業的業主權益部份, 主要項目為:
 (Owner’s Name), Capital.
 合夥(Partnership)下的業主權益部份, 每個合夥人下各
別設立(Owner’s Name), Capital. 包括兩大部分:
1. Owner’s Drawing
2. Owner’s Capital
 公司(Corporation)組織
 Capital Stock and
 Retained Earnings
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
146
報告式 (Report Form of B/S)
Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Balance Sheet
October 31, 2005
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Accounts receivable
Advertising supplies
Prepaid insurance
Total current assets
Property, plant, and equipment
Office equipment
Less: Accumulated depreciation
Total assets
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
16,950
$ 5,000
40
4,960
$ 21,910
分類式資產負債表幫助財務報表使用人快速地得知
1. 當負債到期時, 資產的可用性有多少;
2. 債權人可自總資產中取得多少債權.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
147
報告式 (Report Form of B/S)
Accounting 2010
Liabilities and Owner’s Equity
Current liabilities
Notes payable
Accounts payable
Interest payable
Unearned reveneue
Salaries payable
Total current liabilities
Long-term liabilities
Notes payable
Total liabilities
Owner’s equity
C. R. BYRD Capital
$1,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
5,550
4,000
9,550
12,360
$21,910
Total liabilities and Owner’s equity
•資產負債表通常以報告式編寫.
•而資產項目於前, 負債與業主權益項目於後.
2010/09/13
NTHUQF
148
報告式 (Report Form of B/S)
Accounting 2010
PIONEER ADVERTISING AGENCY
Balance Sheet
October 31, 2005
Assets
Current assets
Cash
Account receivables
Advertising supplies
Prepaid insurance
Total current assets
Property, plant and equipment
Office equipment
$ 5,000
Less: Accumulated Dep.
40
Liabilities and Owner’s Equity
$ 15,200
200
1,000
550
16,950
4,960
Current liabilities
Notes payable
Accounts payable
Interest payable
Unearned revenue
Salaries payable
Total current liabilities
Long-term liabilities
Notes payable
Total liabilities
Owner’s equity
C. R. BYRD Capital
Total assets
2010/09/13
$ 21,910
NTHUQF
Total liabilities and Owner’s Equity
$1,000
2,500
50
800
1,200
5,550
4,000
9,550
12,360
$21,910
149
會計循環簡單圖示說明
Accounting 2010
平
時
會
計
工
作
期
間
終
了
會
計
工
作
2010/09/13
會
計
事
項
會
計
憑
證
調
整
工
作
底
稿
結
帳
工
作
底
稿
日
分錄
調整
分錄
結帳
分錄
記
分
過帳
類
簿
帳
日
分
記
過帳
類
簿
帳
日
分
過帳
試算
類
簿
帳
算
表
試算
試算
記
NTHUQF
試
提
整 編表
後
試
算
表
損
提
整 編表
後
試
算
表
資業現
主
產 金
權
負益流
變
債 量
動
表表表
益
表
150
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