Chapter 17 Restructuring the Postwar World

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Chapter 17
Restructuring
the
Postwar World
1945 – Present
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I.
Cold War:
Superpowers Face Off
2
OBJECTIVES
• Analyze the U.S.-Soviet postwar
split.
• Explain how Soviet domination of
Eastern Europe developed.
• Describe U.S. containment of
Communist expansion.
• Define the Cold War.
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A. Setting the stage
1. World War II, the U S and Soviet
Union joined forces against the
Germans.
2. Animosity caused by competing
political philosophies would lead to
a nearly half-century of conflict
called the Cold War.
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B. Allies Become Enemies
1. Yalta Conference:
A Postwar Plan
a) February 1945 –
US, Britain, USSR
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b) agreed to divide Germany
into 4 zones of occupation
controlled by Soviet Union &
Western powers
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c) Stalin agreed to join the war
against Japan.
d) Stalin promised that Eastern
Europeans would have free
elections.
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2. Creation of the
United Nation
a) June 1945
b) Peacekeeping organization of
nations set up after World War II
(1) including U.S. & USSR.
c) General Assembly – all nations are
members
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The UN emblem shows the world held in
the “olive branches of peace”.
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d) Security Council – 11 members
(1)real power
(2)investigate & settle disputes
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(3) five permanent members
(1)Britain,
(2)China,
(3)France,
(4)the United States,
(5)the Soviet Union
(4) Each could veto any Security
Council action.
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Info:
• 192 countries are UN
• The exceptions are Taiwan (in 1971,
the UN ousted Taiwan and replaced
it with the People's Republic of
China) and Vatican City.
• Kosovo is not yet a member.
• The newest UN members are
Switzerland (2002) and Montenegro
(2006).
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3. Differing U.S. & Soviet Goals
a) U S & Soviet Union split sharply
after the war.
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b) U.
S.
1) the world’s richest & most
powerful country
2) suffered 400,000 deaths
3) cities & factories remained
intact
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c) The Soviet Union
1) One in four Soviets was wounded
or killed.
2) Many Soviet cities were in ruins
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d) Political & economic differences
affected the two countries’
postwar goals
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The Ideological Struggle
Soviet & Eastern
Bloc Nations
[“Iron Curtain”]
GOAL  spread worldwide Communism
US & the
Western
Democracies
GOAL  “Containment” of
Communism & the eventual collapse
of the Communist world.
[George Kennan]
METHODOLOGIES:
 Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]
 Arms Race [nuclear escalation]
 Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World
peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. &
capitalist economy]  “proxy wars”
 Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
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C. Eastern Europe’s Iron Curtain
1. A major goal of the Soviet Union
was to shield itself from another
invasion from the west.
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2. Soviets Build a Buffer
a) Stalin ignored the Yalta
agreement & installed or secured
Communist governments in:
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1) Albania
2) Bulgaria
3) Hungary
4) Czechoslovakia
5) Romania
6) Poland
7) Yugoslavia
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b) Truman, Stalin, and Churchill met
at Potsdam, Germany, in July 1945.
c) Truman pressed Stalin to permit
free elections in Eastern Europe.
d) The Soviet leader refused.
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e) In a speech in early 1946, Stalin
declared that communism and
capitalism could not exist in the
same world.
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3. An Iron Curtain Divides
East & West
a) Germany had been split into two
sections.
b) The Soviets controlled the eastern
part
(1) including half of the capital,
Berlin - Communist government
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c) East Germany was named the
German Democratic Republic.
d) The western zones became the
Federal Republic of Germany in
1949.
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The “Iron Curtain”
From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across
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the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.
e) Churchill’s phrase “iron curtain”
came to represent Europe’s division
into mostly
1) Democratic
Western Europe
2) Communist
Eastern Europe.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jvax5VUvjWQ
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The Iron
Curtain
is shown
dropping
on
Czechoslovakia
in this 1948
political
cartoon.
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D. United States Tries to Contain
Soviets
1. Containment
a) policy directed at blocking Soviet
influence & stopping the
expansion of communism.
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b) Containment policies included
(1) forming alliances
(2) helping weak countries resist
Soviet advances.
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2. Truman Doctrine
a) Truman’s support for countries
that rejected communism
b) Congress, immediately
authorized more than $400 million
in aid to Turkey and Greece.
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Truman Doctrine [1947]
1. Civil War in Greece.
2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR
for concessions in the Dardanelles.
3. The U. S. should support free peoples
throughout the world who were resisting
takeovers by armed minorities or outside
pressures…We must assist free peoples
to work out their own destinies in their
own way.
4. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 44
million in aid.
3. The Marshall Plan
a) provide food, machinery, and
other materials to rebuild Western
Europe.
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Marshall Plan [1948]
1. “European Recovery Program.”
2. Secretary of State,
George Marshall
3. The U. S. should provide
aid to all European nations
that need it. This move
is not against any country or doctrine, but
against hunger, poverty, desperation, and
chaos.
4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this
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was rejected].
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The West Resists
The democratic nations of the West soon faced a test of their resolve to
contain the Communist East.
The Truman Doctrine
• Early 1947, Soviet backed
Communists threatened
governments of Greece, Turkey
• President Truman announced
Truman Doctrine—pledge to
provide economic, military aid to
oppose spread of communism
• Congress agreed to send aid to
Greece, Turkey
The Marshall Plan
• Because of post-war economies,
Truman believed more European
countries might turn to
communism
• U.S. launched massive program
of economic aid
• Marshall Plan provided $13
billion for rebuilding Europe
• Plan helped Western Europe
make rapid recovery from war,
preserved political stability
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4. The Berlin Airlift
a) Soviets wanted to keep former
enemy weak and divided.
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Post-War Germany
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Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
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b) 1948, France, Britain &
U.S. decided to withdraw forces
1) allow their occupation zones to
form one nation.
c) Soviet Union responded by
holding West Berlin hostage.
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d) Soviet Union cut off highway,
water, and rail traffic into Berlin’s
western zones.
e) American & British officials flew
food and supplies into West Berlin
for nearly 11 months.
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MEMORIALS: The Airlift Memorial at Rhein Main Air Base, Frankfurt, and on
Luftbruckenplatz at Tempelhf Airport in Berlin.
Each prong represents one of the 3 air corridors used during "Operation Vittles", and
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the names of the US and British Airmen killed in the process are inscribed on the base
of each.
f) May 1949, the Soviet Union
admitted defeat and lifted the
blockade.
g) 31 Americans lost their lives
during the Berlin Airlift
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E. The Cold War Divides the world
1. Cold War
a) a struggle over political
differences carried on by means
short of military action or war.
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2. Superpowers Form
Rival Alliances
a) NATO
1) 1949, ten western European
nations joined with the United
States and Canada to form a
defensive military alliance.
2) North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
 United States
 Luxemburg
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Britain
 Norway
 Canada
 Portugal
 Denmark
 1952: Greece &
Turkey
 France
 Iceland
 Italy
 1955: West Germany
 1983: Spain
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b) Warsaw Pact, 1955
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
the Soviet Union,
East Germany,
Czechoslovakia,
Poland,
Hungary,
Romania,
Bulgaria,
Albania.
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Warsaw Pact (1955)
}
U. S. S. R.
}
East Germany
}
Albania
}
Hungary
}
Bulgaria
}
Poland
}
Czechoslovakia
}
Rumania
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3. The Berlin Wall
a) 1961, East Germany built a
WALL that separated the two
cities
(1) Massive concrete barrier
(2) Topped with barbed wire &
patrolled by guards
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The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Checkpoint
Charlie
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1961 - Berlin
Wall
• On August 15,
communist
authorities begin
construction on
the Berlin Wall to
prevent East
Germans from
fleeing to West
Berlin.
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Another Crisis in Berlin
Crossing Over
• After Communist East Germany, democratic West Germany formed in 1949,
tens of thousands of East Germans crossed from East to West Berlin
• Some wanted to live in free nation, other simply wanted to find work
Berlin Wall
• By 1961, up to 1,000 per day made daily trip between homes in East
Germany, jobs in West Berlin
• To stop exodus, East Germany erected barrier between two halves of city
Communist Brutality
• Barrier, Berlin Wall, heavily guarded
• Anyone attempting to cross risked being shot by East German guards
• Succeeded in slowing flight of East Germans, became symbol of Communist
system brutality
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The Arms Race:
A “Missile Gap?”
}
The Soviet Union
exploded its first
A-bomb in 1949.
}
Now there were
two nuclear
superpowers!
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4. The Threat of Nuclear War
a) The hydrogen or H-bomb would
be thousands of times more
powerful than the A-bomb
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1) Its power came from the fusion,
or joining together, of atoms
a) rather than the splitting of atoms, as
in the A-bomb.
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2) In 1952, the United States tested
the first H-bomb.
3) The Soviets exploded their own in
1953.
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The Arms Race Begins
During the 1950s and early 1960s nuclear war seemed to draw ever
closer as the Soviet Union and the United States raced to develop
powerful new weapons. This rivalry between the world’s two
superpowers became increasingly tense—and dangerous.
The Nuclear Arms Race
Hydrogen Bomb
• 1949, Soviets successfully tested
atomic bomb
• Atomic bombs used energy created
by splitting atoms
• Great military advantage of U.S.
over Soviet Union gone
• Nuclear fusion—larger explosion
• U.S. sought to develop even more
powerful weapons
• 1952, U.S. tested first fusionpowered hydrogen bomb,
vaporizing island on which tested
The U.S. technological advantage was short-lived. Less than one year
later the Soviets tested their own hydrogen bomb.
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b) Dwight D. Eisenhower became the
U.S. President in 1953.
1) Appointed anti-Communist
John Foster Dulles as his
secretary of state.
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Dulles:
2) If the Soviet Union or its
supporters attacked U.S. interests,
the United States would “retaliate
instantly, by means and at places of
our own choosing.”
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Massive Retaliation
• On January 12, 1955
U.S. Secretary of State
John Foster Dulles first
announces the doctrine
of Massive Retaliation.
• It threatens full-scale
nuclear attack on the
Soviet Union in response
to communist aggression
anywhere in the world.
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John Foster Dulles and MacArthur in Korea, 1950
c) Brinkmanship
1) Willingness to go to the brink, or
edge, of war
2) required a reliable source of
nuclear weapons and airplanes to
deliver them.
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3) The United States strengthened its
air force and began producing
stockpiles of nuclear weapons
4) The Soviet Union responded with
its own military buildup
5) beginning of an arms race that
would go on for four decades
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5. The Cold War in the Skies
a) In August 1957, the Soviets
announced the development of a
rocket that could travel great
distances—
1) an intercontinental ballistic
missile, or ICBM.
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b) On October 4, the Soviets used an
ICBM to push Sputnik,
1) the first unmanned satellite, above
the earth’s atmosphere
2) event increased U.S. spending on
education and technology
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Sputnik
• On October 4, the Soviet
Union launches Sputnik,
the first man-made
satellite to orbit the Earth.
• In 1958, the U.S. creates
the National Aeronautics
and Space
Administration, and the
space race is in full gear.
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Sputnik I (1957)
The Russians have beaten America in
space—they have the technological edge!
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Soviet Union Launches Sputnik
In October 1957 the arms race took another leap forward with the
Soviet Union’s successful launch of Sputnik.
Sputnik
Public Fears
• Sputnik, history’s first artificial
satellite—object orbiting earth
• Growing threat of nuclear war
• Soviet military technology now
feared to be in the lead
• Built bomb shelters to help
protect from nuclear explosion
• U.S. government established
National Aeronautics and
Space Administration, NASA
• Schools led air-raid drills to
prepare for possible Soviet
attack
• Agency would eventually
return United States to
forefront of space research
• Books, movies, comic books
had plots centered on dangers
of radiation, nuclear war
• Significant impact on people
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c) In 1958, the United States
launched its own satellite.
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d) U-2 Incident heightened
Cold War Tensions
(1)In May 1960, the Soviets shot
down a U-2 plane
(2)Francis Gary Powers, the pilot
was captured
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1960 - The U-2
Affair
On May 1, an American
high-altitude U-2 spy
plane is shot down on a
mission over the Soviet
Union.
After the Soviets
announce the capture of
pilot Francis Gary
Powers, the United
States recants earlier
assertions that the
plane was on a weather
research mission. 98
U-2 Spy Incident (1960)
Col. Francis Gary
Powers’ plane was
shot down over Soviet
airspace.
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The U-2 Affair
•Suffering major
embarrassment, Eisenhower
was forced to admit the truth
behind the mission and the U-2
program, although he refused
to publicly apologize to
Khrushchev.
•This refusal caused the Paris
Summit to collapse when
Khrushchev stormed out of
negotiations.
• Powers was sentenced to ten years in prison, including seven years
of hard labor, following an infamous show-trial.
• He served less than two years, however, and was released in 1962
in exchange for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel.
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Soviet_Advancements_in_Science__Space__and_Technology
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II. Communists
Take Power in China
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OBJECTIVES
• Analyze the civil war between the
Nationalists and the Communists.
• Explain how China split into two
nations.
• Describe how Mao’s Marxist
regime transformed China.
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Mao’s Revolution: 1949
Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!
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A. Setting the stage
1. World War II, China fought on
the side of the victorious Allies
2. Japan’s armies had occupied and
devastated most of China’s cities.
3. In 1945, opposing Chinese armies
faced one another in a civil war.
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B. Communists vs. Nationalists
1. World War II in China
a) Mao Zedong
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(1) mobilized peasants for guerrilla war
against the Japanese in the northeast.
(2) efforts to promote literacy and
improve food production
(3) Communists won the peasants’
loyalty.
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b) Jiang Jeshi
1) Nationalist forces
2) supplies and money often ended up
in the hands of a few corrupt
officers.
3) Nationalist army saved its strength
for the coming battle against
Mao’s Red Army.
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2. Civil War Resumes
a) After WWII China was in a Civil
War between Communists &
Nationalists
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1) Mao Zedong’s Communist
were victorious & set up the
People’s Republic of China
b) Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalist’s
fled to Taiwan
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1949 – Fall of China
• In June, Jiang Jieshi
defeated by Mao
– Flee to island of Taiwan
• Oct 1, Mao proclaims
People’s Republic of China
(PRC)
• Two months later, Mao
travels to Moscow,
– negotiates the Sino-Soviet
Treaty of Friendship, Alliance
and Mutual Assistance.
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C. The Two Chinas
Affect the Cold War
1. Country splits in two
a) island of Taiwan, or Nationalist
China
b) The mainland, or People’s
Republic of China
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2. The Superpowers React
a) United States helped set up a
Nationalist government on
Taiwan.
b) Soviets gave financial, military,
and technical aid to Communist
China.
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3. China Expands under the
Communists
a) Chinese troops expanded into
(1) Tibet,
(2) India,
(3) and southern, or Inner, Mongolia.
(4) Northern, or Outer, Mongolia,
which bordered the Soviet Union
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b) 1950 and 1951, China took control
of Tibet
c) the Dalai Lama fled to India
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D. The Communists Transform
China
1. Communists Claim a New “Mandate
of Heaven”
(a) Chinese Communists set up two
parallel organizations,
(1) the Communist party
(2) the national government.
(3) Mao headed both until 1959.
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2. Mao’s Brand of
Marxism Socialism
a) Under the Agrarian Reform Law
of 1950, Mao seized the holdings of
landlords.
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3. “The Great Leap Forward”
a) Communes
(1) A group of villages that worked
together to farm common lands
(2) plan called for still larger
collective farms
(3) ate in communal dining rooms,
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(4) slept in communal dormitories
(5) raised children in communal
nurseries.
(6) They owned nothing.
(7) The peasants had no incentive to
work hard when only the state
profited from their labor.
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b) Failure
(1) Reduced, low quality, industrial
goods
(2) Reduced food production
(3) Millions starved
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4. New Policies and Mao’s response
a) Red Guards
(1) 1966, Mao urged China’s young
people to “learn revolution by
making revolution.”
(2) They left their classrooms and
formed militia units
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(3) Carried “Little Red Book” – collection of
Mao Zedong’s writing about communism
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5. The Cultural Revolution
a) Red Guards led a major uprising
known as the Cultural Revolution
b) goal was to establish a society of
peasants & workers in which all were
equal.
c) The new hero was the peasant
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d) Eventually, Mao turned on the Red
Guards
(1) Most were exiled to
the countryside.
(2) Others were
arrested
(3) Some executed
(4) Became a lost
generation
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III. Wars in Korea & Vietnam
139
Objectives:
• Trace the course and consequences
of the Korean War.
• Summarize the causes of the
Vietnam War and describe its
aftermath.
• Describe conditions in Cambodia and
Vietnam after the Vietnam War.
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Korean War, 1950-1953
• On June 25, North
Korean communist forces
cross the 38th parallel
and invade South Korea.
• On June 27, Truman
orders U.S. forces to
assist the South Koreans
• The U.N. Security Council
condemns the invasion and
est’d a 15-nation fighting
force.
• Chinese troops enter the
conflict by year's end.
• Cease fire eventually
brings war to close by
1953
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The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)
Kim Il-Sung
Syngman Rhee
“Domino Theory”
144
A. Setting the Stage
1. 38th parallel
a) When World War II ended, Korea became
a divided nation
(1) Communist industrial north, whose
government had been set up by the
Soviets.
(2) Non-Communist rural south, supported by
the Western powers.
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B. War in Korea
1. Standoff at the 38th Parallel
a) June 25, 1950, North Koreans swept
across the 38th parallel
(1) surprise attack on South Korea
b) South Korea asked the United Nations
to intervene
147
c) the Soviets were absent for Security
Council vote
d) They had refused to take part in the
Council
(1) to protest admission of Nationalist
China (Taiwan), rather than
Communist China, into the UN.
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2. UN sent an international force to
Korea to stop the invasion.
a) A total of 15 nations
(1) the United States
(2) Britain
b) under the command of General
Douglas MacArthur.
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3. The Fighting Continues
a) Chinese felt threatened by the troops
at their borders & by an American
fleet off their coast.
b) October 1950, sent 300,000 troops into
North Korea
152
c) Chinese moved into South Korea
& captured the capital of Seoul
d) MacArthur called for a nuclear
attack against China
e) Truman viewed MacArthur’s
proposals as reckless
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f) MacArthur tried to go over the
President’s head by taking his case
to Congress and the press
g) In response, Truman removed
him.
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h) July 1953, the UN forces and North
Korea signed a cease-fire agreement
i) border between the two Koreas was set
near the 38th parallel,
(1) almost where it had been before the
war
(2) 4 million soldiers and civilians had
died
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4. Aftermath of the war
a) A demilitarized zone, which still exists,
separated the two countries.
161
b) the Communist dictator
Kim Il Sung takes control
(1) established collective farms,
(2) developed heavy industry,
(3) built up the military.
162
c) At Kim’s death in 1994, his son
Kim Jong Il took power.
(1) Communist
North Korea
developed nuclear
weapons
(2) had serious
economic
problems.
163
d) South Korea
(1) prospered, massive aid from the
United States & other countries
(2) concentrated on developing
industry & expanding foreign
trade.
164
(3) 1987 adoption of a
democratic constitution
(4) established free elections
165
C. War Breaks Out in Vietnam
1. The Road to War
a) Ho Chi Minh
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Dien Bien Phu
• After a long siege,
Vietnamese communists
under Ho Chi Minh defeat
French colonial forces at
Dien Bien Phu on May 7.
• In July, the Geneva
Accords divide the
country at the 17th
parallel, creating a North
and South Vietnam.
• The United States
assumes the chief
responsibility of providing
anti-communist aid to
South Vietnam.
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2. The Fighting Begins
a) Domino theory
(1) President Eisenhower’s term
(2) Southeast Asian nations were like a
row of dominos
(3) The fall of one to communism would
lead to the fall of its neighbors
170
Fighting Begins
U.S. supported South Vietnam
• U.S. supported South Vietnam to keep from being taken over by North
• South Vietnam leader Ngo Dinh Diem prevented 1956 election
• Also made enemies with corrupt, brutal rule
Vietcong
• Diem’s enemies formed Vietcong, “Vietnamese Communist”—not all Vietcong
Communists; all shared goal of overthrowing Diem, reuniting Vietnam
• Soon North Vietnamese entered South Vietnam, fought alongside Vietcong
Fighting Escalates
• As Vietcong influence spread, U.S. increased aid to South Vietnam
• Also sent thousands of military advisors to help South Vietnamese forces
• August 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson informed Congress two U.S. Navy
ships subject of unprovoked attack by North Vietnamese gunboats
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3. Vietnam- A Divided Country
a) Ngo Dinh Diem (NOH dihn D’Yem)
(1) France set up an anti-Communist
government under his leadership
(2) Diem ruled the south as a dictator.
(3) Opposition to his government grew
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b) Vietcong
(1) Communist guerrillas
(2) some Vietcong were trained soldiers
from North Vietnam
(3) South Vietnamese generals had Diem
assassinated
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1964 - Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution
• North Vietnamese
patrol boats fired on
the USS Mattox in
the Gulf of Tonkin on
August 2.
• On August 7, the U.S.
Congress approves the
Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution, granting
President Johnson
authority to send U.S.
troops to South
Vietnam.
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D. The United States Gets Involved
1. U.S. Troops Enter the Fight
a) had been serving as advisers to
the South Vietnamese since the
late 1950s.
178
Vietnam War: 1965-1973
179
b) U.S. soldiers were fighting a
guerrilla war in unfamiliar jungle
terrain.
c) South Vietnamese government grew
more unpopular
d) support for the Vietcong grew,
(1) help & supplies from Ho Chi Minh,
the Soviet Union, & China.
180
The Vietnam War
Fighting with France was over, but conflict was not—Ho Chi Minh’s dream of
a united, independent Vietnam would be achieved only after years of war.
Vietnam’s Future
Domino Theory
• 1954, representatives from France,
Vietnam, U.S., Soviet Union, other
nations met to establish peace
agreement for Vietnam
• Talks reflected Cold War tensions
• Worried about spread of
communism, Western powers did
not want Ho Chi Minh, Communists,
to have complete control of Vietnam
• Vietnam temporarily divided into
northern, southern halves
• Communists would control north
• Voters to choose government for
reunited Vietnam in 1956
• President Eisenhower warned if
Vietnam fell to communism, other
Southeast Asian nations would quickly
follow
• Belief that communism would spread
called domino theory
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1968 - Tet Offensive
Viet Cong guerrillas
and North Vietnamese
Army troops launched
attacks across South
Vietnam on January 30,
the start of the lunar
new year Tet.
In Saigon, guerrillas
battle Marines at the
U.S. Embassy.
In March, Johnson
orders a halt to the
U.S. bombing of North
Vietnam and offers
peace talks.
183
Tet: A Turning Point
• 1968, North Vietnamese army, Vietcong carried out daring strike against
cities, other targets across South Vietnam
• Attack began on Vietnamese New Year, called Tet—came to be known as Tet
Offensive
• Offensive military setback for Vietcong; still delivered heavy political blow to
U.S., South Vietnamese effort
Weakened Support
Opposition Grew
• American leaders had claimed
victory in Vietnam close at hand
• After Tet Offensive, war expanded
into Laos, Cambodia
• Tet Offensive dramatically showed
this was not case
• North Vietnamese had supply
network—Ho Chi Minh Trail
• Attacks greatly weakened American • U.S. efforts to destroy trail failed
public support for war
• More Americans opposed war
184
2. The United States Withdraws
a) late 1960s, war grew
increasingly unpopular
b) President Richard Nixon
began withdrawing U.S.
troops from Vietnam in 1969
185
c) Vietnamization
(1)U.S. troops to gradually pull out
(2)the South Vietnamese increased
their combat role
186
187
d) Nixon kept withdrawing U.S. troops.
e) The last troops left in 1973.
f) Two years later, the North
Vietnamese overran South
Vietnam.
g) More than 1.5 million Vietnamese
& 58,000 Americans lost their lives.
188
E. Postwar Southeast Asia
1. Cambodia in Turmoil
a) Cambodia (also known as
Kampuchea) was under siege by
Communist rebels.
189
b) Khmer Rough - Communist rebels
(1)leadership of Pol Pot
c) Vietnamese invaded in 1978
d) Vietnamese withdrew in 1989
190
e) 1993,
under supervision of UN
peacekeepers, Cambodia adopted a
democratic constitution and held
free elections.
191
2. Vietnam after the War
a) 1975, victorious North Vietnamese
imposed tight controls over the
South
b) “reeducation camps” for training in
Communist thought.
c) nationalized industries & strictly
controlled businesses.
192
IV. The Cold War
Divides the World
193
Objectives:
1. Explain how the Cold War
affected developing nations
2. Describe superpower
confrontations in Latin America
after World War II.
3. Identify Cold War conflicts in the
Middle East.
194
A. Setting the Stage
1. World’s nations were grouped
politically into three “worlds.”
a) The first was the industrialized
capitalist nations,
(1) United States & its allies.
195
b) Second was the Communist
nations led by the Soviet Union.
c) The Third World consisted of
developing nations
196
(1) often newly independent
(2) were not aligned with either
superpower
(3) created competition between the Cold
War superpowers.
197
B. Fighting for the Third World
1. Located in Latin America, Asia,
& Africa
a) economically poor & politically
unstable
b) suffered from ethnic conflicts,
lack of technology & education.
198
c) needed a political & economic
system around which to build
its society
(1) Soviet-style communism
(2) U.S.-style free-market
democracy
199
2. Cold War Strategies
a) Backed wars of revolution,
liberation, or counterrevolution.
b) The U.S. and Soviet intelligence
agencies—
200
(1) the CIA and the KGB—
(2) engaged in various covert, or
secret, activities, ranging from
spying to assassination attempts
201
c) United States
(1)gave military aid
(2)built schools
(3)set up programs to combat
poverty
(4)sent volunteer workers to
developing nations
202
d) Soviets
1) offered military & technical
assistance
2) mainly to India & Egypt.
203
3. Association of Nonaligned Nations
a) 1955, leaders from Asia & Africa
met at the Bandung Conference.
b) Met to form what they called a
“third force” of independent
countries, or nonaligned nations.
204
205
206
C. Confrontations in Latin America
1. Latin American nations seek aid
from both superpowers b/c
a) rapid industrialization
b) population growth
c) gap between rich & poor
207
2. Fidel Castro & the
Cuban Revolution
a) 1950s, Cuba ruled by unpopular
dictator, Fulgencio Batista
(1) Backed by U.S.
b) January 1959, A young lawyer
named Fidel Castro led a
revolution
208
1959 - Castro takes power
• January 1, 1959
leftist forces under
Fidel Castro overthrow
Fulgencio Batista
• Castro nationalizes
the sugar industry and
signs trade
agreements with the
Soviet Union.
• The next year, Castro
seizes U.S. assets on
the island.
209
(1) Castro nationalized the Cuban
economy
(2) Took over U.S.-owned sugar mills
and refineries
(3) Eisenhower ordered an embargo
on all trade with Cuba
(4) Castro turned to the Soviets for
economic & military aid.
210
211
c) 1960, the CIA began to train
anti-Castro Cuban exiles
d) April 1961, invaded Cuba, landing
at the Bay of Pigs
212
213
1961 - Bay of Pigs
Captured Cubans
• U.S.-organized invasion force
of 1,400 Cuban exiles is
defeated by Castro's
government forces on Cuba's
south coast at the Bay of
Pigs.
• Launched from Guatemala in
ships and planes provided by
the United States, the
invaders surrender on April
20 after three days of
fighting.
• Kennedy takes full
responsibility for the
disaster.
214
215
Communism in Cuba
•
•
•
•
•
1959, rebels led by Fidel Castro overthrew Cuba’s dictator
Installed Communist government
Centrally planned economy, close ties with Soviets
Actions worried United States; Cuba near Florida coast
Cuba’s alliance with Soviet Union brought Cold War close to American
territory
Bay of Pigs
• U.S. government secretly trained
invasion force to overthrow Castro
• April 1961, force came ashore at
Cuba’s Bay of Pigs
• American officials believed invasion
would start uprising against Castro
• Instead invaders quickly defeated
Cuban Missile Crisis
• 1962, Cuban missile crisis, two week
confrontation between U.S., Soviet
Union over installation of nuclear
missiles in Cuba
• After standoff missiles removed; U.S.
agreed to remove missiles from Turkey,
not attack Cuba
216
3. Nuclear Face-Off:
the Cuban Missile Crisis
a) July 1962, Khrushchev secretly began
to build 42 missile sites in Cuba
b) American spy plane discovered the
sites.
217
218
c) President John F. Kennedy
demanded their removal
d) Announced a naval blockade of
Cuba to prevent the Soviets from
installing more missiles.
219
e) Khrushchev agreed to remove the
missiles in return for a U.S.
promise not to invade Cuba.
220
1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis
• After Bay of Pigs
invasion, the Soviet Union
installed nuclear missiles
in Cuba.
• After U-2 flights
Kennedy ordered a naval
blockade of Cuba on
October 22 until the
Soviet Union removed its
missiles.
• On October 28, the
Soviets agreed to remove
the missiles, defusing one
of the most dangerous
confrontations of the Cold
War.
221
222
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
223
224
225
4. Civil War in Nicaragua
a)U.S. funded the Nicaraguan
dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza
& his family since 1933.
b)1979, Communist Sandinista
rebels toppled Somoza’s son.
226
c) the Soviet Union gave aid to the
Sandinistas & their leader, Daniel
Ortega.
d) Sandinistas, gave assistance to other
Marxist rebels in nearby El Salvador
The United States gave aid to the
Sandinistas but withdrew support
when the Sandinistas aided Marxist
rebels in El Salvador. .
227
e) United States supported Nicaraguan
anti-Communist forces called the
Contras or contra-revolucionarios
228
229
D. Confrontations in the
Middle East
1. Religious & Secular Values Clash
in Iran
a) oil industry wealth fueled a
growing clash
b) between traditional Islamic values
and modern Western materialism.
230
2. The United States Supports
Secular Rule
a)Shah Mohammed
Reza Pahlavi
(pah•luh•vee)
westernized his
country.
231
b) By the end of the 1950s, Iran’s capital,
Tehran, featured gleaming
skyscrapers, foreign banks, &
modern factories.
c) Millions of Iranians still lived in
extreme poverty.
232
d) The shah tried to weaken the
political influence of Iran’s
conservative Muslim leaders
(1) ayatollahs-opposed Western
influences.
e) The leader of religious opposition,
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, was
living in exile.
233
f) tape recorded messages caused
Iranians to riot in every major city in
late 1978.
g) A triumphant Khomeini returned to
establish an Islamic state
(1) & to export Iran’s militant form of
Islam
234
3. Khomeini’s Anti- U.S. Policies
a) Strict adherence to Islam ruled
b) hatred of the United States
c) 1979, young Islamic
revolutionaries seized the U.S.
embassy in Tehran.
235
d) took more than 60 Americans
hostage
(1) Demanded the United States
force the shah to face trial.
e) Most hostages remained prisoners
for 444 days before being released
in 1981.
236
237
f) Khomeini encouraged Muslim radicals
elsewhere to overthrow their secular
governments.
g) Intended to unify Muslims,
(1) this policy heightened tensions
between Iran & its neighbor &territorial
rival, Iraq.
(2) A military leader, Saddam Hussein
governed Iraq as a secular state.
238
h) Iran - Iraq War
(1)1980, War broke out between Iran
& Iraq
(2)U. S. secretly gave aid to both
sides
(a) did not want the balance of
power in the region to change.
239
(3) The Soviet Union had long been a
supporter of Iraq.
(4) UN negotiated a ceasefire in 1988
240
241
242
4. The Superpowers Face Off in
Afghanistan
a) late 1970s, a Muslim revolt
threatened to topple Afghanistan’s
Communist regime.
b) led to a Soviet invasion in 1979.
243
244
c) Soviets found themselves stuck.
d) rebel forces outmaneuvered a
military superpower
e) the Afgan rebel holy warriors
fought with American weapons
(1) mujahideen
245
246
247
f) United States had armed the rebels
(1) considered the Soviet invasion a
threat to Middle Eastern oil
supplies.
g) President Jimmy Carter warned
the Soviets against any attempt to
gain control of the Persian Gulf.
248
h) stopped U.S. grain shipments to
the Soviet Union
i) ordered a U.S. boycott of the 1980
Moscow Olympics.
j) 1980s, a new Soviet president,
Mikhail Gorbachev,
(1) withdrew all Soviet troops by
1989.
249
250
V. The Cold War Thaws
251
Objectives:
• Analyze Soviet domination of
Eastern Europe and the Soviet
Union-China split.
• Trace the origins of détente & its
effect on the Cold War.
• Describe the renewal of Cold War
tensions in the 1980s
252
A. Setting the stage
1. Soviet Union kept a firm grip on its satellite
countries in Eastern Europe.
a) Poland,
b) Czechoslovakia,
c) Hungary,
d) Romania,
e) Bulgaria,
f) Albania,
g) East Germany
h) Yugoslavia (had broken away from Soviet
control in 1948, although it remained
Communist.)
253
2. Soviet Union did not allow
satellites to develop their own
economies.
a) insisted they develop industries
to meet Soviet needs
b) policies hurt Eastern Europe’s
economic recovery.
254
B. Soviet Policy in Eastern Europe &
China
1. DeStalinization & Rumblings of
Protest
a) Stalin died in 1953
b) Nikita Khrushchev becomes Soviet
leader.
c) 1956, Khrushchev denounced Stalin
for jailing and killing loyal Soviet
citizens.
255
256
d) His speech signaled the start of a
policy called destalinization
(1) purging the country of Stalin’s
memory
(2) Workers destroyed monuments of the
former dictator
e) Khrushchev called for “peaceful
competition” with capitalist states.
257
2. The Revolt in Czechoslovakia
a) Leonid Brezhnev
1) 1964, party leaders voted to
remove K from power.
2) replacement, Leonid Brezhnev
(a) quickly adopted repressive
domestic policies.
258
259
3) party enforced laws to limit basic
human rights
(1)freedom of speech &
(2)worship.
4) Government censors controlled
what writers could publish.
260
3. The Soviet-Chinese Split
a) Mao & Stalin had signed a 30-year
treaty of friendship in 1950.
b) spirit of cooperation ran out before
the treaty did.
261
c) Soviets assumed the Chinese would
follow them in world affairs.
(1) resented being in Moscow’s shadow
(2) spread their own brand of
communism in Africa & parts of Asia.
262
d) 1959, Khrushchev refused to share
nuclear secrets
e) Following year, the Soviets ended
technical & economic aid
263
f) Soviet-Chinese split grew
(1) fighting along common border
(2) repeated incidents, two neighbors
maintained a fragile peace.
264
C. From Brinkmanship to Détente
1. Brinkmanship Breaks Down
265
a) Policy of Brinkmanship
followed during the
presidencies of:
(1) Eisenhower
(2) Kennedy
(3) Johnson
(4) led to one terrifying
crisis after another.
266
b) crises erupted all over the world
(1) united by a common fear of Nuclear
war
(2) 1960, the U-2 incident
267
c) Cuban Missile Crisis
(1) superpowers’ use of nuclear weapons
was a reality
268
269
Paris, 1961
Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear
proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young,
270
inexperienced
e) 1963, Lyndon Johnson
becomes president
(1) Kennedy is assassinated
(2) Committed to stopping the
spread of communism
(3) escalated U.S. involvement in the
war in Vietnam
271
272
2. The United States Turns to détente
a)backed away from policy of direct
confrontation
273
b) Détente, a policy of lessening Cold
War tensions
(1) President Richard M. Nixon
(2) move grew out of a philosophy
known as realpolitik
(a) term comes from the German
word meaning “realistic politics”
274
(b) meant dealing with other nations in a
practical & flexible manner.
(c) U. S. continued to try to contain the spread
of communism
(d) Moves from policy of brinkmanship to
dentente
(1) Country needed to heal its internal
conflicts over Vietname
(d) two superpowers agreed to pursue détente
& to reduce tensions.
275
3. Nixon Visits Communist Power
a) 1950s strong anti-Communist
position
b) 20 years later, the first U.S.
president visits Communist China
276
277
278
279
c) 3 months after visiting Beijing
(February 1972) Nixon visited the
Soviet Union.
280
S.A.L.T.
d) Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT)
(1) Nixon & Brezhnev signed the
SALT I Treaty.
281
(2) five-year agreement
(3) limited the number to 1972 levels
of intercontinental ballistic &
submarine-launched missiles
282
1969 -- SALT
• On November 17, the 1st
phase of Strategic Arms
Limitation Talks began in
Helsinki, Finland.
• The finished agreement,
signed in Moscow on May
26, 1972, placed limits
on both submarinelaunched and
intercontinental nuclear
missiles.
283
(4) 1975, the Helsinki Accords
(a) 33 nations signed a commitment
to détente & cooperation
284
D. The Collapse of détente
1. U. S. improved relations with China &
Soviet Union under presidents Nixon
& Ford
2. Late 1970s, President Carter was
concerned over harsh treatment of
protesters in the Soviet Union.
285
3. threatened to prevent a second
round of S.A.L.T. negotiations
a) 1979, Carter & Brezhnev
finally signed the SALT II
agreement.
286
4. Soviets invaded Afghanistan later
that year
1) U.S. Congress refused to ratify
SALT II
2) more nations began building
nuclear arsenals
a) China & India
287
E. Regan Takes an
Anti-Communist Stance
1) took office in 1981
a) moved away from détente.
b) increased defense spending
c) put both economic & military
pressure on the Soviets
288
289
290
291
2) 1983, Strategic Defense Initiative
(SDI)
a) a program to protect against enemy
missiles.
b) not put into effect
c) remained a symbol of U.S. antiCommunist sentiment.
292
293
294
3) Tensions increased
a) pushed the United States & Soviet
Union further from détente.
b) change in Soviet leadership in 1985
brought a new policy toward the U.S.
c) beginnings of a final thaw in the Cold
War.
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
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