The Cold War - Killarney Secondary School

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The Cold War and Society
Part One (1945 – 1980)
Ms. Underwood
Prince of Wales Secondary
Social Studies 11
Time for Peace…

The League of Nations had failed to keep
the peace after WW 1.
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Had no military power.
Most influential members were not committed.
After WW2, there was a need for a new
organization to keep the peace.
In 1945 the UN formed
The United Nations
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50 countries met in San Francisco (including
Canada).
Had four goals:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Keeping world peace and preventing new wars.
Encouraging cooperation among nations.
Defending human rights and helping to promote
equality.
Improving the standard of living for all nations.
Canada and the UN
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Played a key role in the drafting of the UN
Charter.
In 1948, Canada received its own seat on
the Security Council.
There are 5 permanent seats (Russia, US,
Britain, France, China).
Canada has a non-permanent seat.
Active in peacekeeping efforts.
Start of a different kind of war…
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The Cold War, a struggle of ideologies between
the world’s two new super powers: US and
Russia.
Fought using propaganda, espionage, and
economic and political pressures.
The two countries did not fight in direct combat.
It was a fight for power and influence on a global
scale.
Characteristics of the Cold War
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Continual fear of a nuclear war.
Arms race.
Differing viewpoints on acceptable social,
political, and economic philosophies.
Democracy vs. Authoritarianism
Capitalism vs. Communism
Fear of the spread of communism
(Western perspective).
Ideological Differences

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Western capitalist nations feared the part
of communist ideology that was aimed at
world revolution.
The Soviet Union feared being surrounded
by capitalist countries (possible counterrevolution).
The Domino Theory

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The US was concerned with the way that
Stalin was able to quickly establish
communist regimes in 6 countries after
WW2.
The Domino Theory implied that the rest of
the countries in Europe would soon fall
one by one to the Soviets.
Satellite States

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The 6 countries that became communist
under the Soviets were completely
controlled by the Soviet Union. (Satellite
States).
Winston Churchill declared that an Iron
Curtain had fallen across Europe that
divided communist and non-communist
states.
Containment
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In 1947 US declared the Truman Doctrine – to
support free people around the world who were
resisting subjugation (esp. people threatened by
communism).
The policy of containment meant to halt or stop
the spread of communism, by providing
economic aid a military support.
The Marshall Plan offered billions of dollars in
aid to war-torn European economies to help
them resist communism.
Canadian Concerns

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Igor Gouzenko asked for political assylum in
Canada in return for giving the Cdn.
Government documents that proved there were
two spy rings in Canada.
The Red Scare: RCMP carried out inquires and
investigations regarding potential communists in
Canada.
Potential immigrants were denied entry.
Known communists were deported.
What about Germany?
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Had been divided after WW2 into 4 zones
controlled by the US, Britain, France and
Russia.
US, Britain, and France joined their
sectors together to form West Germany.
Stalin created the German Democratic
Republic, later to be called East Germany.

A wall was built between the two sides.
NATO

Creation prompted by the Berlin Blockade.
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Soviet Union blocked transportation routes
after a new currency was introduced in West
Germany.
NATO formed in 1949 to provide mutual
defence between member countries.
The Warsaw Pact was developed in
response to NATO in 1955.
NORAD
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Created in 1957.
Radar stations were set up to detect
Soviet Planes or missiles.
Three radar lines were constructed in
Canada’s North to provide advance
warning of a missile attack.

The DEW line, Mid-Canada line, and the
Pinetree Line.
Korean War 1950-53
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After WW2 Korea was divided between the
North and the South.
The North became communist and the South,
democratic.
North Korea invaded South Korea, and would
not leave.
The US backed South Korea.
26,500 Canadians were sent with UN Forces.
The Suez Crisis - 1956
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Egyptian President Nasser seized the Suez
Canal from Britain and France, who in response,
joined with Israel to attack Egypt.
The Soviet Union sided with Egypt.
Lester B. Pearson suggested the UN intervene
until an agreement could be sorted out.  Won
the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy
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While driving down a street in Dallas,
Texas, the American President was shot to
death (November 22, 1963).
Allowed Cuban exiles to invade their
homeland in an attempt to overthrow Fidel
Castro. (Bay of Pigs)
Was the President during the Cuban
Missile Crisis.
The Vietnam War, 1954-1975
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Vietnam was divided between the North
(Communist government, led by Ho Chi
Minh) and the South (anti-Communist and
partially democratic).
The Americans supported the South.
The Americans were trying to contain
communism in South East Asia because they
believed that the domino theory would be
set into effect if South Vietnam fell to the
Communists.
The Vietnam War
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The Americans were having difficulties winning
the war and lost a lot of public support.
 The US had a lot of troops in Vietnam.
 TV images appeared daily on TV of the
widespread suffering of Vietnamese.
Some people did anything they could to avoid
being drafted, including heading to Canada
where they evaded the military.
These people were called draft dodgers.
Cyprus, 1964-1993
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A civil war broke out between the Greek
majority and the Turkish minority.
Canadian troops were sent when the
conflict first broke out in 1964, and the last
were not withdrawn until 1993.
Canada spent almost $600 million to
maintain its forces.
Communist China is Recognized
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In 1949, Mao Zedong took over the
government of China.
The UN (pressured by the US) refused to
recognize the communist government.
Some countries (including Can.) recognized
the communist government as the official
government of China.
By 1971, the Americans finally allowed Red
China to have a seat on the UN Security
Council.
Problems in the Middle East
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Yom Kippur War, 1973. Egypt would
eventually recognize Israel’s right to exist,
and the Israeli’s agreed to negotiate the
occupied territories.
In the 1990s it seemed as though an
agreement was finally at hand.
However, the present Intifada (Palestinian
uprising), which started in 2001, ended any
hope for a resolution to the Arab-Israeli
conflict.
Afghanistan, 1979
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Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan 
frustrated the West.
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Boycott of 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.
Soviets responded by boycotting the 1984
L.A. games.
Soviets invaded Afghanistan to get closer
to the oil reserves in the area.
Arms Race Renewed
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Soviets deployed medium-ranged missiles to
Eastern Europe.
NATO responded by deploying more new advanced
missiles in Europe.
Disarmament talks halted (SALT 2 was supposed to
limit the construction and deployment of ICBMs).
In 1981, the US decided to spend mega $$ on
Defence systems (modernization of nuclear
weapons).
Soviets attempted to again match weapons levels.
Trudeau’s Foreign Policy
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In 1968, Pierre Elliott Trudeau was elected
Prime Minister.
One of his goals was to develop foreign policy
that was less dependant on US approval.
He wanted to scale back Canada’s participation
in the nuclear arms race.
He cut the National Defence budget and
reduced Canada’s NATO contingent to half it’s
size.
He wanted to maintain good relations with the
US.
Social Welfare in Canada and Overseas
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Social Security- The Unemployment Insurance
Act was passed in 1940  Government accepts
social security as a responsibility.
The Colombo Plan- Foreign aid initiative, built
infrastructure in (commonwealth countries).
La Francophonie- Canada joined this
organization. Gave development aid to West
Africa (developed to act as a link between
French colonies).
Social Changes in Canada
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Baby Boomers – Soldiers returning home were
reunited with families. Canada’s population
increased from 12 million in 1946 to 18 million in
1961.
Immigration Policy – After the war, displaced
persons from Europe arrived in Canada.
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Immigration Act of 1952 gave power the Minister of
Immigration. Barring immigrants entry would
continue.
Demand for immigrant labour would open Canada for
immigration.
Immigration continued…
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The Citizenship Act of 1976 – Eliminated
gender discrimination. Citizenship granted
to children of overseas marriages when
the mother was Canadian (used to be only
granted when the father was Canadian).
The Immigration Act of 1978 – Reduced
barriers to immigration. 3 categories:
Family, Refugee, and Independents.
More Social Changes
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Entertainment – Watching TV and listening
to Music!
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CBC bought American programs like “The Ed
Sullivan Show”.
Hockey Night in Canada was popular.
Rock ‘n’ Roll… Beatles, Elvis, Rolling Stones.
CRTC created to ensure that a certain
percentage of the media was of Canadian
origin.
Protest Era
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Protesting – Teen culture developed that
didn’t trust anyone over 30.
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A counterculture developed against the
“Establishment”
Protest over Aboriginal and black North
American rights.
Demonstrations against nuclear arms,
American interference, and the Vietnam War.
The Women’s Movement
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Demand for improved rights for women
occurred.
Women’s Liberation movement became popular
in the 1960s. Sought changes in:
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Employment practices.
Life choices.
Politics.
Women were looking to be treated equal in all
fields.
Expo ‘67
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The Worlds’ Fair was held in Montreal.
This was also Canada’s 100th birthday.
Many world leaders came (Kings,
princesses, presidents).
French president, during a speech,
shouted to the crowd “Vive le Quebec!
Vive Quebec libre!  Tensions between
French and English heightened.
Trudeaumania
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Being French-Canadian, many felt that he would
finally address Quebec’s concerns.
People were attracted to him because of his
youthfulness, casualness, and style.
Drove fast cars and was an outdoorsmen.
Cool under pressure and was scholarly.
Had wit and confidence.
He was very popular, people swarmed around
him. Women loved him.
The Avro Arrow
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The RCAF wanted a supersonic long range jet
to be developed.
The contract went to A.V. Roe Canada.
Cost estimated to be $2 million per plane.
Could travel at Mach 1.5
Reached nearly $4 million per plane.
Fearing soaring costs, Canadian government
ceased production.
The 6 completed planes along with reports and
blueprints were torched.
OPEC Crisis
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Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries realized that the demand for oil
was greater that the supply in 1972.
OPEC raised the price of oil from $6 to
$16 US a barrel.
In 1979, war between Iraq and Iran
caused a drop in the supply of oil and
prices rose to $40 US.
The National Energy Program
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In response to the OPEC crisis, Trudeau
implemented the NEP, which would freeze
Alberta oil prices below world levels to keep the
price down for Canadians.
Trudeau also put a tariff on oil sold to the US 
This angered Albertans as they were prevented
from getting fair market value.
Feelings of Western alienation grew…
separation from Canada?
Foreign Investment Review Agency
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FIRA was established to approve the
establishment of any new foreign
companies in Canada.
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Intended to target American investment.
This was an attempt to protect Canadian
industries.
Canada as a Middle Power
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The world was divided between the West
(US & allies) and the East (communist
China, the Soviet Union et. al).
The Trudeau government attempted to
improve relations between the two sides
by promoting peace.
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Attempted to reduce nuclear arms.
Established trade and sporting links.
It’s not over yet…
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By the end of the 1970s, there was no
clear indication that the Cold War was
ending.
There would be more conflict throughout
the 1980s.
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