Smaller wheels in front made it easier to turn Bucket of grease hung here to grease down wheels Conestoga Wagon was about the size of a modern Surburban. It could carry 8 tons of material (most of the material though was thrown out eventually) and had to be towed by 4-6 oxen or 6-8 mules/horses. TOOLS POUNDS ax 15 shovel 12 hatchet 9 hammer 7 hoe 3 anvil 150 grinding stone 75 animal trap 15 rope 4 Personal Items jump rope marbles family Bible books hunting knife bag of clothes fiddle snowshoes rifle pistol first aid kit Pounds doll 1 1 2 2 1 40 2 8 10 7 3 2 Food Pounds flour tea salt sugar coffee bacon dried fruit dried beans cornmeal spit peas oatmeal vinegar pickles dried beef salt pork assorted spices barrel of water vegetables 150 10 50 50 100 40 100 100 10 100 8 25 50 25 5 5 350 5 Household Goods rug bedding mirror dutch oven butter churn 40 table and 4 chairs piano organ baby cradle wooden bucket bedpan butter mold rocking chair pitcher and bowl cooking stove cooling utensils stool spinning wheel lantern clock 10 candles set of dishes Pounds coffee grinder 40 20 40 70 200 900 2000 75 10 2 1 50 5 700 2 10 80 4 1 1 40 Wagon Trains were usually led by a “Captain”. The Captain was usually an experienced trail guide. Sometimes the Captain was chosen because he was the richest person in the train or had the most family members in the train. The Wagon Trains learned that to keep from choking each other’s dusk, the spread out over a big area. To lead the Wagon trains forward the Captain would yell “Forward Ho!” Caravans would only travel ten to fifteen miles per day. On rainy and muddy days they might only travel one mile! It would take them five to seven days just to travel the distance we can drive a car in a single hour. The people would have to get up very early each morning in order to prepare for their daily travels. It was usually dark on these mornings. They would have to start the fire, prepare breakfast, gather the livestock, reload the wagon, and hitch the oxen or mules before getting started. The caravans often traveled 7 days a week, but some choose to travel 6 days a week in observance of the Sabbath. The trains that traveled only 6 days often arrived to their destination faster and in better health. Children had lots of chores that included milking their cows, fetching water from a stream or a river that was nearby, helping their parents cook food, washing dishes, collecting buffalo chips (pooh) or wood for the fire, shaking out dusty blankets and quilts, and hanging beef jerky to dry in the sun. Plus they walked most of the way!!!! Cholera (biggest killer) is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae. Infection is acquired primarily by ingesting contaminated water or food; person-to-person transmission is rare. Indian Attack: Rare but feared. A myth is that the settlers put their wagons in a circle to fend off attacks at night. While this did happen, the main reason was to put the cattle inside the circle so they wouldn’t wander off. Accidents: Wagons running over people. Failed water crossings. Horses bucking off their riders. Accidental gunshot wounds. Mortality Rate: Never really can be known, but most historians say that it was the same as the population that decided not to go west. Dried Fruit- A staple on the trails west. This allowed for the Pioneers to get the nutrition they needed without fear of spoilage Saltines- To represent in a good way the hardened bread that the pioneers had to deal with. Beef Jerky- A substitute for Salted Beef. Salt was the preservative in an era without freezers and refrigerators Pickles- Cucumbers soaked in a brine made them last longer, but still gave them the nutrition Vegetables- A luxury that settlers had at the beginning of the journey.