Exodus - Egypt to the Red Sea

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THE ROUTE OF THE
EXODUS
FROM
EGYPT TO THE RED SEA
PART ONE!
All scriptures are taken from
A New English Translation by Fred Coulter
unless otherwise noted.
Revised April 11th, 2012
1
What is our focus to be during
the Days of Unleavened Bread
beginning with the Night to be much
observed at the beginning of 15th
Day of the month of Nisan (Abib)?
Many have puzzled over this in
the past and perhaps many still do.
The answer is very clear!
2
Exodus 12:41-42, “And it came to
pass at the end of the four hundred
and thirty years, it was even on that
very same day, all the armies of the
Lord went out from the land of Egypt.
It is a night to be much observed to
the Lord for bringing them out from
the land of Egypt. This is that night of
the Lord to be observed by all the
children of Israel in their generations.
3
“Observe” means “to see or
notice something, especially while
watching carefully”.
God wants us to “observe” or
reflect on the incredible miracles
He performed in dealing with the
Egyptians and in bringing Israel out
of slavery in Egypt!
4
Exodus 13:3, And Moses said to the
people, "Remember this day in
which you came out of Egypt, out
of the house of bondage; for the
LORD brought you out from this
place by the strength of His hand.
There shall be no leavened bread
eaten.
5
Our making an effort to
remember and learn more of the
events of the Exodus each year will
ensure that we do not forget the
magnitude of God’s power in dealing
with His people and will enable us to
better understand that the same
power is available to aid us when
necessary, if we ask!
6
Eating Unleavened Bread for
seven days helps point us to the
events of the Exodus. It is a daily
reminder that we can trust our Father
to look after our best interest as He
delivers us from our slavery to our
human nature, if we ask Him to! And to
know that, no matter what happens to
us in this life, if we are determined to
serve Him, He will give us eternal life at
the resurrection!
7
Deuteronomy 16:1, “Keep the
month of Abib, and observe the
Passover to the Lord your God. For
in the month of Abib, the Lord your
God brought you out of Egypt by
night.
Israel did not begin to leave
Egypt until Sundown at the
beginning of Nisan 15!
8
The events of that night and the
following days are to be
remembered!
Deuteronomy 16:2-4, “And you shall
therefore sacrifice the Passover to
the Lord your God, of the flock and
the herd, in the place where the Lord
shall choose to place His name
there.
9
You shall eat no leavened bread with
it. Seven days you shall eat
unleavened bread with it, the bread
of affliction, for you came forth out of
the land of Egypt in haste, so that you
may remember the day in which you
came forth out of the land of Egypt all
the days of your life.
10
And there shall be no leaven seen
with you in all your borders for
seven days. Nor shall any of the
flesh which you sacrifice the first day
at sunset remain all night until
morning.”
The Lamb’s remains had to be
burned during the night!
11
The Days of Unleavened Bread,
beginning with the Night to be much
observed are a separate Feast
from the Passover and are an
observance of the great works or
miracles God performed in bringing
the Israelites out of slavery in the
land of Egypt.
12
Exodus 13:9-10, And it shall be a
sign to you upon your hand, and for
a memorial between your eyes,
that the LORD'S law may be in your
mouth, for with a strong hand the
LORD has brought you out of Egypt.
You shall therefore keep this law
in its season from year to year.
13
Exodus 12:35, And the children of
Israel had done according to the word
of Moses. And they asked for articles
of silver, and articles of gold, and
clothing from the Egyptians.
They received their “wages” for
their Labour and were reasonably
well off and equipped when they left
Egypt!
14
Israel spent the daylight portion
of the 14th of Nisan collecting their
“back wages” (spoils) from the
Egyptians, taking their personal
belongings and making their way
from their respective homes to
Rameses which was their “formingup place” for the march out of Egypt.
15
They Israelite may have formed
up into their respective clans or
tribes for the march.
Exodus 12:36-38, And the Lord gave
the people favour in the sight of the
Egyptians, and they granted their
request, and they stripped the
Egyptians.
16
And the children of Israel journeyed
from Rameses to Succoth, the men
being about six hundred thousand
on foot, apart from little ones.
And also a mixed multitude went up
with them, and flocks and herds,
very much livestock.
17
Moses, an experienced military
commander, had given instructions
to the people to assemble at
Rameses in their family or tribal
groups in preparation for the march
to the Red Sea.
18
The Exodus from Egypt did not
begin on the 14th of Nisan but began
after sundown or the beginning of the
15th day of Nisan.
19
Exodus 13:17-18, And it came to
pass, when Pharaoh had let the
people go, God did not lead them
by the way of the land of the
Philistines (road name) although
that was near, for God said, "Lest the
people repent when they see war,
and they return to Egypt".
20
But God led the people around by
the way of the wilderness of the Red
Sea (road name). And the children of
Israel went up armed out of the land
of Egypt.
Notice Israel had weapons with them!
Which road was known as “the way of
the Red Sea”?
21
The next slide, taken from an old
Worldwide Church of God
publication, illustrates the route of
the Exodus beginning at Rameses
and along the Way of the Red Sea
running along the eastern side of the
Gulf of Suez. Notice the name
“Wilderness of Etham”
22
.
23
Why is the Red Sea called the
Red Sea? Is it really Red? Is it
another name for the Sea of Reeds
as it is called in some translations?
The following writing explains
the origin of the name Red Sea.
24
March 18th. -- We sailed from Bahia. A
few days afterwards, when not far distant
from the Abrolhos Islets (Western
Australian coast), my; attention was called
to a reddish-brown appearance in the
sea. The whole surface of the water, as it
appeared under a weak lens, seemed as
if covered by chopped bits of hay, with
their ends jagged. These are minute
cylindrical confervae (type of algae) , in
bundles or rafts of from twenty to sixty in
each.
25
Mr. Berkeley informs me that they
are the same species
(Trichodesmium erythraeum) with
that found over large spaces in the
Red Sea, and whence its name of
Red Sea is derived.
Charles Darwin
26
Exodus 13:20, And they moved from
Succoth and camped in Etham at the
edge of the wilderness.
The next slide shows a location
named Etham by the person who
created the map. It seems more
likely the name Etham pertains to the
whole area and they camped “at the
edge of the wilderness of Etham”.
27
Three stops on the
way to the Red Sea
Exodus 13:20, 14:2
28
NOTE: In locating the crossing point
of the Red Sea, the crossing point
needs to be possible, logical and
harmonize with scripture. For
example, crossing a shallow
freshwater lake like the Bitter Lakes,
where winds merely blew the water
away, does not explain how the
Egyptian army drowned.
29
On the other hand, a crossing through
the centre of the Gulf of Suez where the
water is often 1,800 meters (1.12 miles)
deep easily explains the drowning of the
army, but creates a problem in actually
getting one million men, women,
children and livestock to negotiate the
steep 60 degree downward slope to the
bottom almost a mile deep, then back
up the other equally steep side.
30
All things considered, the Straits of
Tiran in the Gulf of Aqaba illustrated on
the next slide, seem the best candidate
for the crossing point.
The depth of water in the area they could
have crossed is relatively shallow at 250
to 300 metres yet deep enough to drown
an army. The greatest depth shown in
this area is 903 metres, quite a difference
with the 1800 metres in depth across the
Gulf of Suez!
31
32
There is one other natural land bridge
that provides the only other possible
crossing site in the Gulf of Aqaba which
we will examine later.
The Gulf of Aqaba is a very deep
channel of water ranging from 800-1800
meters in the middle. However at the
Straits of Tiran, there is also a natural land
bridge so the deepest point the Israelites
would encounter is only 366 meters.
33
The crossing at the Straits of
Tiran is 18 km long and a natural
land bridge provides for an 800
meters wide pathway the full
distance of the crossing. The
Straits of Tiran have a shallow coral
reef in the middle with a one way
shipping lane on either side.
34
From modern nautical charts,
we can see that the eastern
"Enterprise Passage" is 205
meters deep and 800 meters wide
and the western "Grafton
Passage" is only 70 meters deep
and 800 meters wide.
35
36
A diver need go only 13 meters
at deepest point on top of Jackson’s
Reef from the surface. Coral growth
over the last 3,500 years since the
miraculous crossing means that we
cannot really know exactly what the
sea floor looked like back then.
37
For example, as the coral grew
up and came to the surface, the
tides flowing around the coral would
dig a natural channel deeper on the
north and south ends of the reef
where all the water would flow
around.
38
Gradually, the coral reefs would
act like a partial dam over the center
80% of the strait. This is a very
realistic scenario and means that
3,500 years ago, the coral was under
water and therefore the tides would
not dig the deep channel at either
end of the reef where it is today.
39
But even with the depths we
see today, it causes no problems for
the exodus crossing. The slope of
descent is far more important than
the depth. The Straits of Tiran, as
we see them today pose absolutely
no problem for a crossing by a
million people since the slope is
shallow and the depth is no more
than 600 feet. (205 meters).
40
So 3,500 years ago the 18 km
crossing point at the Straits of Tiran
would likely have been deeper than
it is now over the coral reef and
shallower than it is now in the two
shipping channels.
41
In other words, 3,500 years ago
it may have been a uniform depth of
between 100 and 200 meters for the
entire 18 km . A very easy crossing
indeed. The incline across the
Enterprise Passage on the west side
of Gordon Reef is easy even today to
cross.
42
There is one other natural land
bridge that provides the only other
possible crossing site in the Gulf of
Aqaba that is adjacent to Nuweiba.
This is not likely the crossing point,
since the depths there reach 765
meters (2,300 Ft.) and with much
steeper slopes.
43
44
Nuweiba is also in the middle of a
mountain range making it difficult to
access for the Israelites. It doesn’t
have easy continuous access back to
Goshen like the Straits of Tiran offer. It
does too good a job of "shutting them
up on the wilderness" since there is a
very narrow and long canyon through
the mountains they needed to cross to
even get to the shore at Nuweiba.
45
Nuweiba is therefore a distant second
choice to the Straits of Tiran for the location
of the Red Sea crossing.
The next slide shows how passage is
severely restricted or non-existent for a large
body of people to travel north along the west
side of the Gulf of Aqaba. This slide is a
satellite photograph of the Sinai Peninsula, a
desert bounded by the Red Sea. The Gulf of
Suez is to the left and the Gulf of Aqaba is to
the right.
46
47
Notice the location of a Migdol
or fortified watch tower at the
junction of three main bodies of
water, the Gulf of Suez, the Red
Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba on the
next slide.
Notice the name Succoth on the
map.
48
Three stops on the
way to the Red Sea
Exodus 13:20, 14:2
49
Scriptures which mention
Succoth:
Exodus 12:37: “And the children of
Israel journeyed from Rameses to
Succoth, the men being about six
hundred thousand on foot, apart from
the little ones."
50
Exodus 13:20: “And they moved
from Succoth and camped in Etham
at the edge of the wilderness.“
Numbers 33:5-6: “And the children
of Israel set out from Rameses and
pitched in Succoth. And they set out
from Succoth and pitched in Etham,
on the edge of the wilderness."
51
We do not know exactly where
Succoth was located, however we can
get a clue based upon a translation of
the name found in the “Theological
Wordbook of the Old Testament”.
We also do not know to what
extent they “pitched” or set up camp in
Succoth. Was it a camp or a brief rest
area as the main body passed through?
52
In Hebrew, Succoth means:
"block, stop the approach, shut off,
cover" (Theological Wordbook of the
Old Testament, #1492).
(Binyamin Tsedaka of the Samaritan
Community stated, “It means "covers"
or "booths“, depends on the context.)
53
We do not know if the exodus
place names were permanent
names or names given by the
Israelites as they traveled. The
name “Succoth” could refer to a
place that would "block, stop the
approach, or shut off" easy access.
It could simply refer to a place of
“constriction” or a narrow place
which would slow the march down.
54
Notice how wide a passage the
Coastal Plain is along the north side
of the Red Sea making their march
relatively easy.
55
56
57
The next slide shows a possible
location of Succoth, according to the
previous translation of the word, on
the southern edge of the mountain
range on the coastal plain. An
individual named Steve Rudd, thinks
it was “Located 120 km south of the
Port of Suez, 160 km north of Red
sea crossing (Straits of Tiran).
58
Notice the green arrow on the
left in the map, indicating a passage
way through the Succoth or narrow
place, which would have slowed
Israels’ march down. The open area
would be place they could have
“pitched” and those through first rest
a while as others made their way
through.
59
60
The 290 km (180 mile) coastal plain
on the east side of the Gulf of Suez is
flat and wide except for the 16 km (10
mile) section of medium difficulty, hilly
terrain. This is could be why they called
it Succoth.
Moses original request was for
permission to make a 3 day journey into
the wilderness and sacrifice to God.
61
Exodus 3:18, And they shall hearken
to your voice; and you shall come,
you and the elders of Israel, to the
king of Egypt. And you shall say to
him, ‘The Lord God of the Hebrews
has met with us. And now let us go,
we beseech you, three days’
journey into the wilderness, that we
may sacrifice to the Lord our God.’
62
Exodus 5:3, And they said, “The God
of the Hebrews has met with us. Let
us go we pray you, three days’
journey into the desert and sacrifice
to the Lord our God, lest He fall upon
us with plague or with the sword.”
Exodus 8:27, We will go three days’
journey into the wilderness, and
sacrifice to the Lord our God, as He
shall command us.”
63
Traveling 290 miles in 3 days
would require travelling non stop at 4
miles per hour. If they traveled at 7
miles an hour the first day, they may
have rested awhile at Succoth. We
also have to remember that no aspect
of the Exodus, from the plagues to
crossing the Red Sea was natural.
God gave the cloud by day and the
light by night to lead Israel.
64
Since the God given cloud and
light were leading the people at the
pace and in the direction God wanted
them to travel, it seems logical that
He would have given them the
strength to travel at whatever pace
was necessary.
65
The Scriptures twice refer to a
Book called “Jasher” to give greater
credibility to the writer’s statement.
“Jasher (Yashar) is a Hebrew word
meaning "upright". Jasher is not the
name of the author. The name refers
to the fact that the record, facts, and
history are upright, correct, and thus,
trustworthy. Following are scriptures
referring to the Book of Jasher.
66
Joshua 10:13, And the sun stood still
and the moon stood still until the
people had avenged themselves
upon their enemies. Is this not
written in the Book of Jasher?
2 Samuel 1:18, And he said to teach
the children of Judah the Song of the
Bow. Behold, it is written in the
Book of Jasher:
67
The Book of Jasher
translated by Mosheh Samuel
Chapter 81
3. And the sojourning of the children
of Israel, who dwelt in the land of
Egypt in hard labor, was two hundred
and ten years.
68
4. And at the end of two hundred and
ten years, the Lord brought forth the
children of Israel from Egypt with a
strong hand.
5. And the children of Israel traveled
from Egypt and from Goshen and
from Rameses, and encamped in
Succoth on the fifteenth day of the
first month.
69
The scriptures tell us that Israel
moved out of Egypt at the beginning
of the 15th of Nisan. The Book of
Jasher says Israel arrived at Succoth
before the end of the same 15th of
Nisan (Thursday).
70
Could the people have traveled
from Rameses to the area of
Succoth, a possible distance of 162
miles, in one day? Traveling at an
average rate of 7 miles an hour
would enable the head of the column
of Israelites to arrive at this possible
location of Succoth in 24 hours.
71
The scriptures tell us they went out in
haste and with a high hand which meant
they were given anything they wanted
from the Egyptians who were anxious to
see them leave the land. The scriptures
say Israel traveled on foot. They could
also have taken anything the Egyptians
had that would ease their traveling. The
Scriptures also tell us Israel had received
weapons when they left.
72
Egypt also controlled the Sinai
Peninsula through which Israel was
travelling. This would probably have
spurred the Israelites to maintain a
fast walking pace! Wherever
Succoth was actually located, they
undoubtedly arrived there later that
same 15th day of Nisan, as the Book
of Jasher says!
73
The Book of Jasher, chapter 81
6. And the Egyptians buried all their
first born whom the Lord had
smitten, and all the Egyptians buried
their slain for three days.
74
The scriptures tell us that the
Egyptians where burying their dead
when Israel left Egypt and that Israel
was to go three days into the
wilderness to sacrifice to God
(Exodus 8:27) . Jasher tells us that
the Egyptians spent three days
burying their dead.
75
Three days inclusive, would
mean the Israelites completed their
three days journey into the
wilderness and the Egyptians
finished burying their dead at the end
of the weekly Sabbath or the 17th
day of Nisan.
76
It is also interesting to notice the
parallel to the crucifixion week when
Jesus was in the grave from the
beginning of the 15th of Nisan to the
end of the 17th of Nisan which was
the weekly Sabbath.
77
The Book of Jasher, chapter 81
7. And the children of Israel traveled from
Succoth and encamped in Ethom, at the
end of the wilderness.
8. And on the third day after the
Egyptians had buried their first born,
many men rose up from Egypt and went
after Israel to make them return to Egypt,
for they repented that they had sent the
Israelites away from their servitude.
78
Josephus on the Exodus:
“but as they went away hastily, on the third
day they came to a place called Baalzephon,
on the Red Sea;
Exodus 14:1-2. And the LORD spoke to
Moses, saying, “Speak to the children of
Israel that they turn and camp before Pi
Hahiroth, between Migdol (tower) and the sea,
over against (paw-neem‘, in front of, before)
Baal Zephon. You shall camp before (nay'kakh, opposite) it by the sea.
79
The third day would be the
Sabbath, Nisan 17th.
The next slide shows a map
indicating possible locations of
Baalzephon ("Baal of the North“)
and Pihaharoth ("mouth of
water“).
80
81
The following slide is a
sketch further illustrating the
possible locations of Baalzephon
("Baal of the North“) and
Pihaharoth ("mouth of water“).
82
83
84
85
The following slide is a part of a
chart prepared by Fred Coulter. The
chart claims that the crossing of the
Red Sea (Gulf of Aqaba) took place
on the Last Day of Unleavened
Bread. Is this feasible?
86
87
EXODUS CHAPTER THIRTEEN CONTINUED…
Exodus 13: 21-22 “And the LORD
went before them by day in a pillar of
a cloud to lead them in the way, and
by night in a pillar of fire to give them
light, to go by day and night. He
did not take away the pillar of the
cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by
night from before the people”.
88
Verses 21 & 22 state that God
enabled the people to travel around
the clock until they reached the Gulf
of Aqaba. Josephus mentions that
they went hastily or in a hurry! The
distance to the Gulf of Aqaba is
about 280 Miles (450 km).
89
Josephus also says they
arrived at a place called
Baalzephon, on the Red Sea on
the third day. This is entirely
feasible, especially if they covered
the first part of the journey in one
day.
90
280 miles at 4 miles per hour
would take 70 hours or 2 hours short
of 3 days. Walking faster than 4
miles per hour with periodic short
rests would accomplish the same.
91
EXODUS CHAPTER FOURTEEN
14:1-3, “And the LORD spoke to
Moses, saying, "Speak to the
children of Israel that they turn
and camp before Pi Hahiroth,
between Migdol and the sea, over
against Baal Zephon. You shall
camp before it by the sea, for
92
Pharaoh will say of the children of
Israel, 'They are trapped in the land;
the wilderness has shut them in.‘”
God led Israel into a situation
that was impossible to escape from
and ensured the Egyptians would
think Israel was “cornered”.
93
Where was Migdol located? The
following is taken from a
miscellaneous article on web:
“The word "Migdol" in Hebrew means
"watchtower". It refers to one of
many Egyptian military lookout posts
scattered across Egypt. The
existence of the Egyptian Migdols is
confirmed by archeology.”
94
Three stops on the
way to the Red Sea
Exodus 13:20, 14:2
95
The following slide is a view from
the summit of Migdol looking along
the Sinai coast towards Egypt to the
southwest. This is the direction from
which the ancient Israelites came in
their exodus, and the direction from
which the Egyptian army came in
pursuit.
96
97
The following slide is a view from
the summit of the Migdol looking
inland to the northwest along a wadi
called the Wadi Khanasir.
98
99
The following slide is a view from
the summit of the Migdol looking
along the Sinai coast to the
north. The Israelites continued past
the Migdol, probably continued north
along the coastline in the direction
shown in this photograph, and then
later returned and camped between
the Migdol and the sea (Exodus
14:1-3, quoted above).
100
101
It is possible that Israel followed the
route we have just seen, the more likely
avenue the Israelites followed past
Migdol before turning back is the route
shown on the previous slide. A sentinel
standing on the Migdol probably initiated
a signal, ultimately relayed to Pharaoh
(the government officials), that the
Israelites had returned and encamped
near his post.
102
Pharaoh would have been advised
that the Israelites had passed the Migdol
and then returned to it, when Egyptian
military watchmen standing on the Migdol
or military watchtower, observed the
Israelites' movement. Ancient nations,
like modern nations, maintained
communications between military
watchtowers and headquarters, in order to
keep command and control of territory
and armies.
103
The soldier(s) on the Migdol would
have initiated a signal that was relayed
to another lookout post, and then
relayed to another. The signal was
perhaps relayed line-of-site via smoke
signals, signal flags, a series of light
signals from a fire, or possibly even a
chain of human messengers. Ultimately,
the signal would have been relayed to
the government headquarters.
104
Within a few kilometers of the
Migdol, both the coastal route and the
inland route near Migdol end in rugged,
mountainous terrain, winding wadis and
ravines. When the Israelites went on
passed the Migdol, then turned, came
back and camped before the Migdol,
Pharaoh would have naturally
concluded that the Israelites had turned
back because the wilderness they had
come to a “dead end”!
105
When the Egyptian army
pursued the Israelites, the Israelites
had no escape route until God
parted the sea.
The satellite photograph on the
following slide shows that the
coastal plain north of the Migdol
dead-ends into rugged,
mountainous terrain.
106
107
We have seen that Israel
completed their three day journey
into the wilderness on the 17th of
Nisan at the same time as the
Egyptians finished burying their
dead. For another three full days
they remained encamped until the
beginning of the Last Day of
Unleavened Bread or the 21st day of
Nisan.
108
THE END
OF
EGYPT TO THE RED
SEA
PART ONE!
109
THE ROUTE OF THE
EXODUS
FROM
EGYPT TO THE RED SEA
PART TWO!
All scriptures are taken from
A New English Translation by Fred Coulter
unless otherwise noted.
Revised April 9th, 2012
110
In Part 1 we learned that Scripture says that
Israel came to a dead end at Etham and could
go no farther, then God told them to turn back
and retrace their steps and camp directly
beside the "Migdol“, or military “look-out tower”
in order for pharaoh to say of the sons of Israel,
'They are wandering aimlessly in the land; the
wilderness has shut them in.' Pi-hahiroth
means a "mouth of water" in Hebrew. Notice
that "Pi-hahiroth faces Baal-zephon" in Num
33:7. If you look at the "mouth" it indeed faces
111
112
113
The Book of Jasher
81:8-24, “And on the third day after the
Egyptians had buried their first born, many
men rose up from Egypt and went after Israel
to make them return to Egypt, for they
repented that they had sent the Israelites
away from their servitude. And one man said
to his neighbor, Surely Moses and Aaron
spoke to Pharaoh, saying, We will go a three
days' journey in the wilderness and sacrifice
to the Lord our God.
114
Now therefore let us rise up
early in the morning and cause them
to return, and it shall be that if they
return with us to Egypt to their
masters, then shall we know that
there is faith in them, but if they will
not return, then will we fight with
them, and make them come back
with great power and a strong hand.
115
And all the nobles of Pharaoh rose up
in the morning, and with them about
seven hundred thousand men, and
they went forth from Egypt on that day,
and came to the place where the
children of Israel were. And all the
Egyptians saw and behold Moses and
Aaron and all the children of Israel
were sitting before Pi-Hahiroth, eating
and drinking and celebrating the feast
of the Lord.
116
And all the Egyptians said to the
children of Israel, Surely you said,
We will go a journey for three days
in the wilderness and sacrifice to
our God and return. Now therefore
this day makes five days (19th of
Nisan) since you went, why do you
not return to your masters?
117
And Moses and Aaron answered them,
saying, Because the Lord our God has
testified in us, saying, You shall no more
return to Egypt, but we will betake
ourselves to a land flowing with milk and
honey, as the Lord our God had sworn to
our ancestors to give to us.
And when the nobles of Egypt saw
that the children of Israel did not hearken
to them, to return to Egypt, they girded
themselves to fight with Israel.
118
And the Lord strengthened the hearts of
the children of Israel over the Egyptians, that
they gave them (the Egyptians) a severe
beating, and the battle was sore upon the
Egyptians, and all the Egyptians fled from
before the children of Israel, for many of them
perished by the hand of Israel.
And the nobles of Pharaoh went to
Egypt and told Pharaoh, saying, The children
of Israel have fled, and will no more return to
Egypt, and in this manner did Moses and
Aaron speak to us.
119
And Pharaoh heard this thing, and
his heart and the hearts of all his
subjects were turned against Israel,
and they repented that they had
sent Israel; and all the Egyptians
advised Pharaoh to pursue the
children of Israel to make them
come back to their burdens.
120
And they said each man to his
brother, What is this which we have
done, that we have sent Israel from
our servitude? And the Lord
strengthened the hearts of all the
Egyptians to pursue the Israelites, for
the Lord desired to overthrow the
Egyptians in the Red Sea.
121
Insert: (Notice the statement “the
Lord strengthened the hearts of all
the Egyptians to pursue the
Israelites”. From the Exodus we can
learn that God can give groups of
people or individuals, the will or
determination to do or accomplish
whatever He wants done.)
122
Jasher 81:22. And Pharaoh rose up
and harnessed his chariot, and he
ordered all the Egyptians to assemble,
not one man was left excepting the little
ones and the women. And all the
Egyptians went forth with Pharaoh to
pursue the children of Israel, and the
camp of Egypt was an exceedingly
large and heavy camp, about ten
hundred thousand (million) men .
123
And the whole of this camp went
and pursued the children of Israel to
bring them back to Egypt, and they
reached them encamping by the
Red Sea.
End of quote from the Book of
Jasher, chapter 81!
124
On the 19th of Nisan, the word
was relayed to Pharaoh that Israel
refused to return. A large number of
charioteers were dispatched.
Travelling at a rate of 12 miles per
hour they would have reached Israel’s
location in one day or sooner
depending on the base they came
from. The main body traveling on foot
would have taken considerably
longer.
125
The scriptures say they camped
overnight intending to force Israel to return
to Egypt the next day. Reinforcements
could have been arriving all night. Israel
may have camped in front of the Migdol or
watch tower for three days waiting for the
arrival of the Egyptian Army after repulsing
the small group who came after them first!
This waiting in a seemingly hopeless
situation would explain why many Israelites
once again, became upset with Moses!
126
Exodus 14:4-23. And I will harden
Pharaoh's heart that he will follow
them. And I will be glorified through
Pharaoh and all his army, so that the
Egyptians may know that I am the
LORD." And they did so.
127
And the king of Egypt was told that
the people fled. And the heart of
Pharaoh and of his servants was
turned against the people. And they
said, "Why have we done this, that
we have let Israel go from serving
us?“ And he made his chariot ready
and took his people with him.
128
And he took six hundred chosen
chariots, and all the chariots of
Egypt and captains over every one
of them. And the Lord hardened the
heart of Pharaoh, king of Egypt.
And he pursued the children of
Israel, and the children of Israel
went out with a high hand.
129
So the Egyptians pursued them, all
the horses and chariots of Pharaoh,
and his horsemen, and his army. And
they overtook them camping by the
sea, beside Pi Hi Hahiroth, before Baal
Zephon. And when Pharaoh drew near,
the children of Israel lifted up their
eyes. And, behold, the Egyptians
marched after them. And they were
very afraid. And the children of Israel
cried out to the LORD.
130
131
And they said to Moses, "Have you
taken us away to die in the wilderness
because there were no graves in Egypt?
Why have you dealt this way with us to
carry us forth out of Egypt? Did we not
tell you this word in Egypt, saying, 'Let
us alone so that we may serve the
Egyptians?' For it would have been
better for us to serve the Egyptians than
that we should die in the wilderness.“
132
And Moses said to the people,
"Fear not! Stand still and see the
salvation of the LORD which He will
work for you today, for the Egyptians
whom you have seen today, you shall
never see them again! The LORD
shall fight for you, and you shall be
still.“ And the LORD said to Moses,
"Why do you cry to Me? Speak to the
children of Israel that they go forward.
133
And you-lift up your rod, and stretch
out your hand over the sea, and divide
it. And the children of Israel shall go on
dry ground through the midst of the
sea. And behold, I am about to harden
the hearts of the Egyptians, and they
shall follow them. And I will get honor
for Myself upon Pharaoh, and over all
his army, over his chariots and over his
horsemen.
134
And the Egyptians shall know that I am
the Lord when I will be glorified* through
Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.“
*(Note the emphasis on God being
glorified through Pharaoh’s chariots and
horsemen.)
And the angel of God, who went
before the camp of Israel, moved. And he
went to the rear of them. And the pillar of
the cloud went from in front of them and it
stood behind them.
135
And it came between the camp of the
Egyptians and the camp of Israel. It
was a cloud of darkness to one, but
gave light by night to the other, so that
the two did not come near one another
all night.
And Moses stretched out his hand
over the sea. And the Lord drove the
sea back with a strong east wind all
that night, and made the sea dry land,
and the waters were divided.
136
And the children of Israel went into
the midst of the sea upon the dry
ground. And the waters were a
wall to them on their right hand and
on their left. And the Egyptians
pursued and went in after them to
the middle of the sea, all Pharaoh's
horses, his chariots, and his
horsemen*.
137
*(It was Pharaoh’s charioteers
and mounted troops who gave
pursuit into the sea. They could
move considerably faster than the
Israelites and should have been
able to catch them quickly and
surround them. But God had
something else in mind.)
138
Josephus on the Exodus:
“…Now, while these Hebrews made
no stay, but went on earnestly,
(going through the sea) as led by
God's presence with them, the
Egyptians supposed at first that they
were distracted, and were going
rashly upon manifest destruction.
139
They put their horse foremost,
and went down themselves into the
sea. Now the Hebrews, while these
were putting on their armor, and
therein spending their time, were
beforehand with them, and escaped
them, and got first over to the land on
the other side without any hurt.”
140
The mounted troops assumed
they would have no problem riding
through the sea and catching up
with Israel, so they took their time
suiting up with armour and
weapons, giving Israel time to clear
the sea and arrive on dry land.
141
142
EXODUS CHAPTER FOURTEEN
CONTINUED…
14:24-31 And in the morning watch it
came to pass that the LORD looked
down upon the army of the Egyptians
through the pillar of fire and of the
cloud, and the army of the Egyptians
was thrown into confusion (in their
camp!).
143
And He loosened their chariot wheels,
and made them go heavily, so that the
Egyptians said, "Let us flee from the face
of Israel, for the LORD fights for them
against the Egyptians (seems God may
have given them a warning!). “But when
they saw that they were going a great way
without any harm, and that no obstacle or
difficulty fell in their journey, they made
haste to pursue them, hoping that the sea
would be calm for them also.
144
And the LORD said to Moses,
"Stretch out your hand over the sea, so
that the waters may come back upon the
Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon
their horsemen." And Moses stretched
forth his hand over the sea. And the sea
returned to its strength when the morning
appeared. And the Egyptians tried to flee
from it. And the LORD overthrew the
Egyptians in the middle of the sea.
145
And the waters returned and covered
the chariots and the horsemen, all the
army of Pharaoh that came into the
sea after them (not the entire army).
There did not remain so much as one
of them. But the children of Israel
walked upon dry land through the
middle of the sea. And the waters
were a wall to them on their right hand
and on their left.
146
So the LORD saved Israel that
day out of the hand of the Egyptians.
And Israel saw the Egyptians dead
upon the seashore. And Israel saw
that great work which the LORD did
upon the Egyptians. And the people
feared the LORD, and believed the
LORD and His servant Moses.
147
The following map shows the
area of the Exodus and the middle
east as it is known today.
Notice the name “Red Sea”
includes the Gulf of Suez and the
Gulf of Aqaba.
148
149
THE SONG OF MOSES
(A Prophesy of us, in the future!
Revelation 15: 2-4)
Exodus 15:1-19, “Then Moses and
the children of Israel sang this song
to the LORD, and spoke, saying,
"I will sing to the Lord, for He has
triumphed gloriously; the horse and
his rider He has thrown into the sea.
150
The Lord is my strength and song,
and He has become my salvation.
This is my God, and I will glorify Him,
my father's God, and I will exalt Him.
The Lord is a Man of war; Jehovah is
His name. Pharaoh's chariots and
his army He has thrown into the sea;
his chosen captains also are
drowned in the Red Sea.
151
The depths have covered them;
they sank into the depths like a stone.
Your right hand, O Lord, has become
glorious in power. Your right hand, 0
LORD, has shattered the enemy in
pieces. And in the greatness of Your
excellency You have overthrown
them that rose up against You. You
sent forth Your wrath, consuming
them like stubble.
152
And with the blast of Your nostrils the
waters were gathered together; the
floods stood upright like a heap; the
depths were congealed in the heart of
the sea. The enemy said, 'I will pursue, I
will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my
lust shall be satisfied upon them, I will
draw my sword, my hand shall destroy
them.’ But, You blew with Your wind; the
sea covered them. They sank like lead
in the mighty waters.
153
Who is like You, 0 LORD, among the
gods? Who is like You, glorious in
holiness, fearful in praises, doing
wonders? You stretched out Your right
hand, the earth swallowed them. You in
Your mercy have led forth the people
which You have redeemed. You have
guided them in Your strength unto Your
holy habitation. The people shall hear;
they shall tremble. Pangs of sorrow
shall take hold on the people of Philistia.
154
Then the princes of Edom were
terrified. Trembling seized upon the
mighty men of Moab. All the people
of Canaan shall melt away. Fear and
dread shall fall upon them. By the
greatness of Your arm they shall be
still as a stone until Your people pass
over, 0 LORD, until the people whom
You have purchased pass over.
155
You shall bring them and plant them in
the mountain of Your inheritance, the
place, 0 LORD, You have made for You
to dwell in; the Sanctuary, 0 LORD, which
Your hands have established. The Lord
shall reign forever and ever. “For
Pharaoh's horses went in with his
chariots and with his horsemen into the
sea, and the Lord turned back the waters
of the sea upon them. But the children of
Israel went on dry land through the
middle of the sea.”
156
END OF THE SONG OF MOSES
Did Israel cross the Red Sea on
the 21ST day of Nisan or the Last
day of Unleavened Bread? In all
probability, YES!
157
The scripture telling us to
"Remember this day in which you
came out of Egypt,” may also be a
reference to the Last Day of
Unleavened Bread being the day
they finally left Egyptian controlled
territory behind!
158
Why do we observe the Days of
Unleavened Bread, starting with a
Holy Day which has the Night to be
Observed at its beginning, and
ending with a Holy Day?
So we will remember the great
works of God and not become
complacent or fearful!
159
160
THE END
161
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