Slide 1 - 中国种猪信息网

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武夷山人工授精技术研讨会
China 6th Wuyi Mountain AI conference
美国种猪遗传育种发展趋势
---以及如何运用优势公猪进行快速改良
北京华特希尔种猪科技有限公司
山东华特希尔育种有限公司
Whiteshire Hamroc, LLC
Shandong Whiteshire breeding company
Whiteshire Hamroc Nucleus Farm
华特希尔-美国核心育种场
1000+ Nucleus and GGP
500+ Nucleus and GGP
山东华特希尔于2012年1月成功引进1200头核心种猪群
History of Genetic Selection in the USA
美国遗传选择的历史-外貌评定
• 从1960年初期,以表现型及构架为基础进行初步选育。
Based on Phenotype and Conformation until early 1960’s
• 数据采集的影响—集中测定站在1960年开始(4500头)
Affected by Data Collection—Central Test Stations
关于外貌评定及选育
 了解什么样的猪是适合于生产环境的,不会过早因肢蹄问题淘汰
 在一定程度上可以选留出繁殖性能较好的种猪
• 能够取得遗传进展的几率几乎为零
• 无法确定后代的优良性,尽管看起来很好
Skeletal Structure of a Sow
母猪的骨骼结构
2. Backbone or spine
1. Should blades
3. Hip bones
4. Tail head
Photos by Dr. Locke Karriker
Where do you evaluate condition?
4. Tail head
5. Top Shape
3. Hip bones
6. Width
between legs
Photos by Dr. Locke Karriker
& Dr. Alex Ramirez
History of Genetic Selection in the USA
美国遗传选择的历史-数据记录系统的采用
•Influenced Economic Records developed—1980’s
经济影响因素记录的发展—1980年
•Pig Champ/HERDSMAN record systems—1980’s
记录系统Pig Champ/HERDSMAN —1980年
•Science applied by STAGES and BLUP genetic analysis—1990’s
科学地运用STAGES及BLUP(最佳线性无偏预测)遗传分析系
统—1990年
Within-herd evaluation 1986, across-herd evaluation 1990
STAGES: Constant Development
STAGES:持续的发展
BioUse of
Use of test
economic
DNA
station data
Indexes
Markers
使用测试站
使用生物经济 使用DNA
数据
指数
标记
Full
Pork Quality
Begin use
animal traits added Global Genetic
of BLUP
model 增加肉质性状 Evaluation
开始使用
全球育种评估
全群模式
BLUP
History of Genetic Selection in the USA
美国遗传选择的历史-消费市场的导向
• Influenced by Consumer Awareness & lean merit—
2000’s
消费意识及瘦肉优势的影响—2000年
• Genetic and Production Systems are guided by
consumer driven supply chains—2000’s
遗传及生产系统是由消费者驱动供应链所影响的—2000年
Basics of Genetic Evaluation
遗传评估的基本原理
• Use Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP)采用线性无偏预测
• To predict an animal’s breeding value (EBV)预测动物的育种值
• Utilize DNA Technology to increase accuracy of genetic prediction
利用DNA技术来提高遗传预测的准确度
• Utilize information from GP and commercial levels to control
interaction of genetics and environment
利用从GP和商业经营中获取的信息来控制遗传与环境的相互影响
• Implement superior management to limited environmental
influence 采取高级的管理手段来减少来自环境的影响
Two Primary Methods to Improve Traits
两种改善性状的主要方法
• Genetic Improvement 基因改良
– Mating systems 配种系统
– Optimal structure for genetic system 最佳的育种系统结构
– Individual animal selection 单个动物选育
• BLUP technology BLUP技术
– Mating allocation 配种安排
• Management Improvement 改善管理
– Health, feed, facilities, etc. 健康、饲料、设备等
Tool #1-Utilizing the Data for genetic improvement
工具1:使用数据改良品种
• HERDSMAN and STAGES 软件系统
– SPI—Sow Productivity Index 母猪生产力指数
– MLI—Maternal Line Index
母系指数
– TSI—Terminal Sire Index
终端父系指数
• Individual Trait EPD’s for each pig 每头猪的单个遗传性状的
EPD值
– Growth, Lean, BA, LW, RTE, etc 生长情况,瘦肉率,出生活仔数,
出生窝重,
• Individual pig’s performance data 单只猪的生长性能数据
• Indexes help balance selection 指数有助于选育。
• Do not use Data to do single trait selection!! 不要使用数据
做单个遗传性状的选育!!
STAGES
Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System
种猪测定和遗传育种评估系统
• EPDs from BLUP Technology for 20+ years
• 20多年的BLUP分析的EPD数值
• Reproductive Traits 繁殖性状
• Number of pigs born alive 出生活仔数
• 21 d Litter weight 21天断奶窝重
• Number of pigs weaned 断奶仔猪数
• Performance traits 生长形状
•
•
•
•
Days to 250 pounds 达到250磅的日龄
Backfat depth 背膘厚度
Loin muscle area 眼肌面积
Pounds of carcass lean 胴体瘦肉重
• Bioeconomic Indexes 经济相关的生物指数
• SPI, MLI, TSI 母猪生产力指数,母系指数,终端父系指数
Available Genetic evaluation software
HERDSMAN Swine Records & Genetic Evaluation Software
遗传育种评估软件——Herdsman养猪生产数据记录和遗传育种评估系统
Records Production Data记录生产数据
Records Performance Data记录繁殖数据
Tracks individual Sows & Boars 追踪单只种猪
Uniquely tracks all individual pigs 追踪所有单只猪
Multi-Generational Defect tracking 多代缺陷追踪
Complete pedigree inbreeding calculations 完全谱系的近
交计算
Genetically evaluate reproductive data 对繁殖数据进行育
种评估
Genetically evaluate performance data 对生长性能数据进
行育种评估
Genetically evaluate feed efficiency data 对饲料效率进行
育种评估
Use BLUP genetic evaluations 利用BLUP进行育种评估
Performs within herd genetic evaluations 种群内育种评估
Performs across herd genetic evaluations种群间育种评估
Available now for on farm use in China!
中国猪场现在可以使用!
Tool #2-Understanding Phenotype and Function for Genetic Improvement
工具2:外观表型和功能对品种改良的价值
Phenotype is also important to economic production of
porkmeat.
外观表型对于猪肉生产的经济性也很重要。
– Skeleton (rib shape, hip structure, soundness)
骨架(肋骨形状,臀部结构,健壮程度)
– Flexibility 适应性
– Muscle structure 肌肉结构
– Youthful appearance—Sow longevity 年轻外观——母猪的
使用周期
– Capacity, Volume 生产能力,体型
– Maturity pattern—market weights 成熟度——上市体重
• 100 Kg markets or 130 Kg markets 100公斤或130公斤
的肉猪市场
Tool #3-Geneticist’s Understanding and Pig Knowledge
工具3:育种师对猪的知识和经验
• Geneticist has to know genetic history of each pig to make
good selections
• 育种师必须熟悉每一头猪的遗传历史数据,以便优选。
• Knowledge learned by seeing pigs in Production setting.
• 在生产过程观察每头猪获得大量知识。
• Experience! 经验!
• Geneticist must understand the Economics of production.
• 育种师必须理解生产的经济学。
• Practice balanced genetic improvement in all important traits
在所有重要的遗传性状中获得育种的平衡。
在核心群和曾祖代水平进行选种的两方面考虑:
表型性状和基因型
The Balance for Genetic Selection at the Nucleus and GGP Levels
Phenotype vs Genotype
EPDs, SPI,
MLI, TSI
表型性状Phenotypic Traits
基因型,由如下数
据表现:活仔数,
出生重,断奶重,
生长率,背膘厚,
眼肌面积,肉质
Genotype Represented by
Data including: Born Alive,
Birth Weights, Weaned
Weights, Growth, Backfat,
Loin size, Meat Quality,
Which Traits Balance your scales for maximum Profit?
哪个性状可以使您的利润最大化?
Production data adds Economics to Selection
基于生产及经济的选育
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Number Born Alive产活仔数—¥125/per pig
Number Weaned断奶数--¥285/per pig
Weaned Weight断奶重--¥15 /Kg
Sow Longevity母猪使用寿命--¥400 /additional parity增加一窝
Growth生长率--¥1.4 /day faster growth 更快的生长率
Backfat背膘厚--¥5/mm
Lean Gain 瘦肉率/Day—¥11/kg or ¥.011/gr
We all rank these differently—but they do provide a base for
objective selection and an Economic basis for Selection
我们排列可能不同——但它们可以提供更加客观的选育以及基
于经济的选育
Genetic Traits for Sow Herd
母系种猪应关注的遗传特性
• Maximize Heterosis and
Fertility in PS gilt
• 最大化的保证后代F1的杂交
优势与繁殖性能
• Economically important traits:
–
–
–
–
–
Born Alive(出生活仔数)
Weaning Weight(断奶重)
Number Weaned(断奶数)
Sow longevity(母猪使用寿命)
Farrowing Interval(繁殖间隔)
Genetic Traits for Terminal Sires
父系种猪应关注的遗传特性
• Growth (生长速率,达
250磅日龄)
(Days to 250#, Vigor)
• Lean Meat(瘦肉率)
• Meat Quality(肉质)
• Soundness(肢蹄稳健性)
• Uniformity(后代一致性)
• Feed Efficiency(饲料转
化率)
F1 Gilts Perform!
相关参考文献/references cited
• Genetic improvement programs in livestock: swine testing
and genetic evaluation system (STAGES)By: J ANIM SCI1991-Stewart-3882-90
• Swine Testing and Genetic Evaluation System: Concepts By:
www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/AS/AS-446.pdf
• swine testing and genetic evaluation system (STAGES)
formulas for indexes By:
• http://www.nationalswine.com/Genetic_Tech_pages/STAGES/
Formulas_for_Indexes.html
• Swine Genetics Handbook By: National Swine Improvement
Federation http://www.nsif.com/handbook.htm
30 Years of Performance Testing, Genetic Evaluation, &
Ruthless Culling…
30年以上的现场测定、育种评定、无数的淘汰选留
…all packed into one little bottle.
全部在这一瓶精液中体现
The industry leader in the production of/作为行业引领者体现如下
•Maternal Landrace & Yorkshire Boars
•优异的母系指数种公猪(大白以及长白公猪)
•Increased weaning weights, fertility, and superior sow longevity
•持续提高的断奶重、繁殖性能、以及超级优秀的母猪使用年限
•Terminal Whiteshire Duroc
•华特希尔终端父系-杜洛克种公猪
•Rapid growth, excellent feed efficiency, and carcass quality
•优异的生长速度以及饲料转化率、屠宰性能
What’s happening in USA now
目前美国的现状
• Currently there are over 130 AI studs in the US, totaling over
26,000 boar spaces. The growth area is in the 200+ boar sector
and it is expected that many of the 100 boars or less studs will
disappear in the next 5 years.
• 目前美国有逾130个以上的公猪站,超过26000头公猪,今后
200头以上的公猪站相对盈利,小规模淘汰。
• Studs over 200 boars can typically produce a dose of semen (3
billion ‘viable’ cells with 80ml volume) for $2.00-$2.25 per dose.
A 100-boar stud would produce a dose for $3.25-3.50.
• 200头以上的公猪站单份精液的成本价将更具优势
• 98-102 doses per boar space per month
• 按照每个栏位月提供98-102份精液计算(30亿/80ml)
Schematic of Genetic System
育种模式示意图
1200 Sow Nucleus and GGP
100 boar herd
GP Multiplication
Herd
PS
Herds
PS
Herds
6000+ Sows
60,000+ Sows
GP Multiplication
Herd
PS
Herds
PS
Herds
Results in 12,00,000+ market pigs from one 1200 sow Nucleus and GGP
人工授精与自然交配花费比较
Cost of natural mating VS A.I service
Name
price
Feed (approximate 1 ton)
4000
Housing, labor, vet ($1/day)
2500
Depreciation ($800 for 1 and 1.5 year)
3500
Interest on investment (8%)
800
Total cost per year
10800
A.I semen from Shandong WH
AS LOW AS 10-15 $
If we assume for natural matting 1 boar can service 15 sows
15*2.3 litters/sow/year=35 times breeding
every sow need breed 2 times, also consider the farrowing
rate with 85%
Natural Cost is
One boar provided 97 services/boar/year
10800 RMB/97=111 RMB/dose
very High
Economic value of superior Sires
优异公猪使用的经济价值(MLI)
MLI=100
MLI=110
MLI=125
500 Sows Herd
0
$1100
$27500
1200 sows herd
0
$26400
$66000
2500 sows herd
0
$55000
$137500
5000 sows herd
0
$110000
$275000
Economic studies indicate that each one point in Maternal
Line Index (MLI) above 100 will result in 1 U.S. dollar more
profit per litter,
母系指数每增加一个点,后代的窝效益增值为1美元
*以上结果为假定母猪年产2.2胎进行计算
Economic value of superior Sires
优异公猪使用的经济价值(TSI)
TSI=100
TSI=110
TSI=125
500 Sows Herd
(9900)
0
19800
49500
1200 sows herd
(23760)
0
47520
118800
2500 sows herd
(49500)
0
99000
247500
5000 sows herd
(99000)
0
198000
495000
Economic studies indicate that each one point in Terminal Line
Index (TSI) above 100 will result in 1.8 U.S. dollar more profit per
litter (0.16-0.2 Dollar per pig marketed)
父系指数每增加一个点,后代的窝效益增值为1.8美元(0.2/头)
*以上结果为假定母猪年产2.2胎, 每胎上市商品猪9头计算
Selecting the right boar for greater profitability
BASE RETURN
NET PER
PIG
# OF PIGS
Per 100
LITTER
NET GAINED
$10.17
955
$9,715.31
What happens if you select a boar that will…
CHANGE
REDUCE BACKFAT 0.1
$11.03
955
$10,535.48
+$820.17
DECREASE FARROWING INTERVAL BY 10
DAYS
$11.82
955
$11,288.10
+$1575.75
IMPROVE FEED / GAIN .1 (FE)
$11.87
955
$11,338.61
+$1623.30
IMPROVE FEED / GAIN .2 (FE)
$12.64
955
$12,073.77
+$2358.46
INCREASE LITTER SIZE 1 PIG
$12.40
1047
$12,986.07
+$3270.76
IMPROVE GROWTH 10 DAYS
$14.66
955
$13,995.54
+$4280.23
Using MLI index to compare Maternal Boar values and worth breeding 100 sows:
用MLI指数比较母系品系的公猪价值以及和100头母猪配种的价值
• MLI index =118
UKI 371-7
• MLI index =108
Abel 428-12
*Each MLI index point is worth $1 每个点价值1美元。
Uki is 10 index points higher than Abel = $10 per litter born
UKI的母系指数比ABEL高10个点=每窝出生猪多10美元价值
100 litters—Uki is worth $1000 more than Abel
100窝—UKI比ABEL的价值高1000美元
友情提示:技术论文集23页
在本论文集的23页中:
•肌肉纵切图的图片注释与B
超图的图片注释出现了颠倒
错误,请将图片的位置进行
对调,谢谢!
• 部分技术公式打印不清晰,
可提供清晰word及PDF版
• [email protected]
•
。
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and Tomorrow
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