Accounting 2010

advertisement
會計學 / Accounting
Summer 2010
NTUIB
2010.09.01
Accounting for Merchandising Operations
Accounting 2010
永續盤存制 (Perpetual inventory system)
 進貨/銷貨
買賣業的會計循環
多站式(Multiple-step)與單站式損益表(Single-step)
 毛利法(Gross profit)的意義與重要性.
定期盤存制(Periodic system)
 銷貨成本(Cost of goods sold)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
2
Accounting for Merchandising Operations
Accounting 2010
 買賣業(Merchandising company)
 買賣商品以賺取利潤之企業
 批發商(Wholesalers) sell to零售業(Retailers)
 Retailers sell to consumers
 買賣業的收益來源: sales.
 買賣業之費用
 銷貨成本(Cost of goods sold, COGS) :為當期出售商品的總成本.
 營業費用(Operating expenses) :銷貨過程中所發生的費用,如
salaries and insurance expense.
 毛利(Gross profit): Sales revenue less COGS
2010/09/01
NTUIB
3
Income Measurement
Accounting 2010
Sales
Revenue
Less
Cost of
Goods Sold
Not used in a
Service business.
Equals
Gross
Profit
Cost of goods sold is the total
cost of merchandise sold
during the period.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
Less
Operating
Expenses
Equals
Net
Income
(Loss)
4
買賣業會計
Accounting 2010
 現銷(Cash Sale)
 企業購買商品然後以現銷的方式將商品出售給顧客之營業循環。
 賒銷(Credit Sale)
 企業購買商品,然後以賒銷的方式將商品出售給顧客,而產生應
收帳款,經一段期間後顧客償還貨款之營業循環。
 存貨制度
 永續(Perpetual):每一存貨的進,銷,餘都永續的保存詳細記載.
=>銷貨數量與銷貨成本(Cost of good sold; COGS)在出售時即知道
 定期(Periodic):平時不記帳,期末盤點期末存貨數量與COGS
=>銷貨成本至期末才知道.why?
2010/09/01
NTUIB
5
永續盤存制(Perpetual Inventory System)
Accounting 2010
 銷貨成本於每次銷貨發生時即決定, 並加以記錄.
 適用情況
 出售高價值商品(如珠寶、汽車)
 出售低價值商品, 但具備收銀機掃瞄器設備者. 如: Wal-Mart零售業
 會計處理
進貨時: 存貨(Merchandise)
現金
銷貨時: 應收帳款
銷貨
銷貨成本(Cost of good slod)
存貨
xxx
xxx
xxx
xxx
xxx
xxx
 特性
 隨時保持明細記錄以顯示每一商品帳上應有存貨數量. 會計期末終
了, 再盤點實際數量, 看其是否與帳上記錄的數量一致.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
6
Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 4
Account Titles and Explanation
Merchandise Inventory
Accounts Payable
(To record goods purchased on
account, terms 2/10, n/30, from
Highpoint Electronic)
Debit
Credit
3,800
3,800
debits to the Merchandise Inventory ,
credit to Accounts Payable .
2010/09/01
NTUIB
7
進貨退出與讓價(Purchases Return and Allowance)
Accounting 2010
由於(1)商品受損或有瑕疵, (2)品質不佳, 或(3)商
品未符合買方規格, 致買方對所收商品不滿意. 在
此情況, 買方可能會將商品退回, 並將付款義務取
消.
 若以現購方式, 則可取回現金, 稱為進貨退出.
 若賣方願意將購價再扣除一部份金額, 買方可能選擇仍
保留該批商品,稱為進貨讓價.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
8
Purchase Returns and Allowances
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 8
Account Titles and Explanation
Accounts Payable
Merchandise Inventory
(To record return of inoperable
goods received from Highpoint
Electronic, DM No. 126)
Debit
300
Credit
300
進貨時已借記Merchandise Inventory ,因而退
貨時貸記此科目
2010/09/01
NTUIB
9
進貨運費(Freight-in)
Accounting 2010
 銷售契約應該載明賣方或買方負擔運費. 貨運條件以FOB
起運點或FOB目的地表示.
 FOB shipping point(起運點交貨)
 Free on board shipping point
 即商品在起運地即由賣方移交給共同承運人, 故運費應由買方方負
擔.
 FOB destination(目的地交貨)
 Free on board destination
 係商品在到達買方營業所在地後才移交給買方, 故運費應由賣方負
擔, 應列為賣方之營業費用.
 這些成本應列記銷貨運費(Freight-out, or Delivery Expense)
=>推銷費用
2010/09/01
NTUIB
10
Accounting for Freight Costs
Accounting 2010
買方支付運費時.
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 6
2010/09/01
Account Titles and Explanation
Merchandise Inventory
Cash
(To record payment of freight,
terms FOB shipping point)
NTUIB
Debit
150
Credit
150
11
Accounting for Freight Costs
Accounting 2010
賣方支付運費時.
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 4
2010/09/01
Account Titles and Explanation
Freight-out (Delivery Expense)
Cash
(To record payment of freight on
goods sold FOB destination)
NTUIB
Debit
150
Credit
150
12
進貨折扣(Purchase Discount)
Accounting 2010
賒購之信用條件(Credit terms), 同意買方若及早
付款, 得享有現金折扣.
這項因對買賣雙方各有好處, 買方節省現金支出,
而賣方得以儘早將應收帳款轉成現金.
進貨折扣以進貨成本減除進貨退回與讓價的餘額
為計算基礎.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
13
信用條件(Credit terms)
Accounting 2010
 現金折扣之金額與期間
 Case1
 信用條件為2/10,n/30: 指於發票次日起算,10天內付款(授信期間
10天, discount period), 則取得發票總價2% 的現金折扣; 超過期限
即無折扣, 最長的授信期間(credit period)為30天, 也就是發票價格
扣除任何退回與讓價之淨額, 將於發票次日起30日到期.「n」原文
為nil,表示不予折扣)
 Case2
 EOM (end of month), 折扣期間展延至銷貨發票日次月起算.
 Case 3
 2/10/EOM, 次月10付款得2%discount, 否則次月起30日內一定要
付款.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
14
Purchase Discounts
Accounting 2010
If payment is made within the discount period
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 14
2010/09/01
Account Titles and Explanation
Accounts Payable
Cash
Merchandise Inventory
(To record payment within
discount period)
NTUIB
Debit Credit
3,500
3,430
70
15
Purchase Discounts
Accounting 2010
If payment is made after the discount period.
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
June 3
2010/09/01
Account Titles and Explanation
Accounts Payable
Cash
(To record payment with no
discount taken)
NTUIB
Debit
Credit
3,500
3,500
16
Q&A
140
Accounting 2010
 Prepare the necessary journal entries, assuming Barone
Company uses a perpetual inventory system.
1. Purchased $20,000 of merchandise on account, terms 2/10, n/30.
2. Returned $500 of damaged merchandise for credit.
3. Paid for the merchandise purchased within 10 days.
Merchandise Inventory
20,000
Accounts Payable
Accounts Payable
500
Merchandise Inventory
Accounts Payable ($20,000 – $500)
19,500
Merchandise Inventory ($19,500 × .02)
Cash ($19,500 – $390)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
20,000
500
390
19,110
17
釋例:自己練習
Accounting 2010
以下是甲公司10月份之交易事項
10/1甲公司向乙公司賒購商品$1000,付款條件2/10,n/30
10/5甲公司向乙公司現購商品$500,且甲負擔運費$50
10/10償還乙公司一半帳款
10/15甲公司向乙公司退貨$300
10/20甲公司償還向乙公司剩餘之帳款
2010/09/01
NTUIB
18
甲公司 (參考答案)
Accounting 2010
定期盤存制
10/1 Purchases
永續盤存制
1,000
Accounts Payable
10/5 Purchases
1,000
Merchandise Inventory
500
Cash
500
490
10/15 Accounts Payable
300
Purchases Returns and Allowance 300
2010/09/01
550
Accounts Payable
10
Cash
Cash
550
50
Purchases Discounts
10/20 Accounts Payable
1,000
50
Cash
10/10 Accounts Payable
1,000
Accounts Payable
500
Cash
Freight-in
Merchandise Inventory
200
Merchandise Inventory
10
Cash
490
Accounts Payable
Cash
NTUIB
300
Merchandise Inventory
Accounts Payable
200
500
300
200
200
19
Sales Transactions
Accounting 2010
認列收入時機
 根據 Revenue recognition principle, 於賺得(earn)時認
列. 在買賣業, 通常是賣方交付買方商品時認列.
 銷貨的方式可能為賒銷或現銷.
 每筆銷貨均應有商業憑證支持, 作為銷貨之書面證據.
如cash register tape or sales invoice
2010/09/01
NTUIB
20
Recording Credit Sales
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 4
Account Titles and Explanation
Accounts Receivable
Sales
(To record credit sale to Chelsea
Video per invoice #731)
Debit
Credit
3,800
3,800
2,400
4
•
•
•
Cost of Goods Sold
Merchandise Inventory
(To record cost of merchandise
sold on invoice #731 to Chelsea
Video)
2,400
For credit sales
Accounts Receivable is debited and Sales is credited;
Cost of Goods Sold is debited and Merchandise Inventory is credited.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
21
銷貨退回與讓價(Sales Returns and Allowances)
Accounting 2010
Sales returns
 客戶對於商品不滿意而退貨.
Sales allowances
 客戶對於商品不滿意而賣方願減價.
會計處理
 買方帳上之進貨退出與讓價, 在賣方帳上為銷貨退回與
讓價.
 若賣方同意買方銷貨退回與讓價, 寄出「貸項通知單
(Credit Memorandum)」.
 銷貨退回與讓價為Sales的抵銷科目(contra account),
正常餘額在借方.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
22
Sales Returns and Allowances
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 8
8
Account Titles and Explanation
Sales Returns and Allowances
Accounts Receivable
(To record return of inoperable
goods delivered to Chelsea Video,
per credit memorandum)
Debit
Merchandise Inventory
Cost of Goods Sold
(To record cost of goods returned
per credit memorandum)
140
Credit
300
300
140
The seller’s entry to record a credit memorandum involves
• Debit to the Sales Returns and Allowances account and
Credit to Accounts Receivable at the $300 selling price
• Debit to Merchandise Inventory and credit to COGS
2010/09/01
NTUIB
23
銷貨折扣(Sales Discount)
Accounting 2010
賒銷之授信條件訂有現金折扣, 提供及早支付帳款
之顧客現金折扣的優惠.
Sales Discounts is a contra revenue account
with a normal debit balance
例: 3/10, n/30.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
24
Recording Sales Discount
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
May 14
Account Titles and Explanation
Debit
Cash
3,430
Sales Discounts
70
Accounts Receivable
(To record collection within 2/10,
n/30 discount period from Chelsea
Video)
Credit
2,500
Wheeler Company
Income Statement (Partial)
For the Month Ended Dec. 31,
When cash discounts are
taken by customers, the
seller debits Sales
Discounts.
2010/09/01
Sales revenue
Sales
Less: Sales returns and allowances
Sales discounts
Net sales
NTUIB
$ 500,000
(27,000)
(9,460)
463,540
25
Q&A
Accounting 2010
 Boggs Company sold merchandise to Wilsey Company on
account for $53,000 with credit terms of 2/10, n/30. The cost of
the merchandise sold was $31,800. During the discount period,
Wilsey Company returned $3,000 of merchandise and paid its
account in full (minus the discount) by remitting $49,000 in cash.
Both companies use a perpetual inventory system. Prepare the
journal entries that Boggs Company made to record:
(1) The sale of merchandise.
(2) The return of merchandise.
(3) The collection on account.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
26
A.
Accounting 2010
(1)
(2)
(3)
2010/09/01
Accounts Receivable
Sales
Cost of Goods Sold
Merchandise Inventory
Sales Returns and Allowances
Accounts Receivable
Merchandise Inventory
[$3,000 × ($31,800 ÷ $53,000)]
Cost of Goods Sold
Cash
Sales Discounts
Accounts Receivable
NTUIB
53,000
53,000
31,800
31,800
3,000
3,000
1,800
1,800
49,000
1,000
50,000
27
乙公司(參考答案)
Accounting 2010
定期盤存制
10/1 Acconts Receivable 1000
Sales
1000
永續盤存制
Acconts Receivable 1000
Sales
1000
Costs of Goods Sold
Inventory
10/5 Cash 500
Sales
500
10/10 Cash
Sales Discounts
Sales
800
Cash 500
Sales
500
490
10
500
10/15 Sales Returns and Allowances
Accounts Receivable
300
Costs of Goods Sold
Inventory
400
Cash
Sales Discounts
Sales
490
10
400
500
Sales Returns and Allowances
300
Accounts Receivable
10/20 Cash
200
Accounts Receivable
200
2010/09/01
800
NTUIB
300
300
Cash
200
Accounts Receivable
200
28
Closing Entries
Accounting 2010
 All accounts that affect the determination of net income
are closed to Income Summary.
1. Debit each income statement credit balance account for
its balance, and credit Income Summary for the same
amount.
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Dec. 31
2010/09/01
Account Titles and Explanation
(1)
Debit
Sales
Income Summary
(To close income statement
accounts with credit balances)
480,000
NTUIB
Credit
480,000
29
Closing Entries
Accounting 2010
2. Cost of Goods Sold must be closed to Income Summary.
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Dec. 31
2010/09/01
Account Titles and Explanation
(2)
Income Summary
Sales Returns and Allowances
Sales Discounts
Cost of goods sold
Store Salaries Expense
Rent Expense
Freight-out
Advertising Expense
Utilities Expense
Depreciation Expense
Insurance Expense
(To close income statement
accounts with debit balances)
NTUIB
Debit
Credit
450,000
12,000
8,000
316,000
45,000
19,000
7,000
16,000
17,000
8,000
2,000
30
Closing Entries
Accounting 2010
GENERAL JOURNAL
Date
2005
Dec. 31
Account Titles and Explanation
(3)
Income Summary
R. A. Lamb, Capital
(To close net income to capital)
(4)
31
R. A. Lamb, Capital
R. A. Lamb, Drawing
(To close drawings to capital)
Debit
Credit
30,000
30,000
15,000
15,000
 After the closing entries are posted, all temporary accounts
have zero balances
 It addition, R. A. Lamb, Capital has a credit balance of
$98,000 ($83,000 + $30,000 - $15,000).
2010/09/01
NTUIB
31
Income Statement
Accounting 2010
單站式損益表(Single-step Income Statement)
 將所有收入及所有費用分別加總, 兩者相減一次得出本
期損益。
多站式損益表(Multiple-step Income Statement)
 將收入與費用分別加以分類, 排列, 經過三個階段求出
本期損益。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
32
多站式損益表
Accounting 2010
計算銷貨毛利
 包括: Sales revenue, COGS, Gross profit sections
 Gross profit rate = Gross profit / Net sales
計算營業損益(Income from operation)
 Operating activities所產生
計算營業外損益(Income from nonoperation)
 Nonoperating activities所產生, 包括:
(1)次要或附屬業務(Secondary or auxiliary
operations)所產生的收入
(2)與營業無關的收入獲損失
計算本期損益。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
33
多站式損益表
Accounting 2010
 營業費用(Operating expenses)包括:
 推銷費用(Selling Expenses)
 管理費用(Administrative Expenses)
 非營業項目(Non-operating section )
 放在營業損益(Income from operations)之後
 其他收入與利得(Other revenues and gains)
 其他費用與損失(Other expenses and losses)
其他收入與利得
Interest revenue
2010/09/01
其他費用與損失
Dividend revenue
Rent revenue
Interest expense
Casualty losses (accident)
Loss from sale of fixed assets
Gains from sale of fixed
Loss from strikes assets
NTUIB
34
Multiple-step Income Statement
Accounting 2010
Forms of Financial
Statements:
MULTIPLE-STEP
Key Items:
Net sales
Gross profit
Gross profit
rate
2010/09/01
NTUIB
35
Forms of Financial
Statements:
MULTIPLE-STEP
Accounting 2010
Key Items:
Net sales
Gross profit
Gross profit
rate
Operating
expenses
2010/09/01
NTUIB
36
Forms of Financial
Statements:
MULTIPLE-STEP
Accounting 2010
Key Items:
Net sales
Gross profit
Gross profit
rate
Operating
expenses
Nonoperating
activities
Net income
2010/09/01
NTUIB
37
Single-Step Income Statement
Accounting 2010
Subtract total expenses from total revenues
Two reasons for using the single-step
format:
 Company does not realize any type of profit until total
revenues exceed total expenses.
 Format is simpler and easier to read.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
38
Single-step Statement
Accounting 2010
2010/09/01
NTUIB
39
Q.
Accounting 2010
 你們公司的gross profit rate=36%, 淨利率=17%
 同業gross profit rate=44%, 淨利率=16%
 身為老闆的你有何意見?
2010/09/01
NTUIB
40
Classified Balance Sheet
Accounting 2010
Current asset:
 Listed in order of liquidity
Presentation
 Cash
 A/R
 Merchandise inventory
 Prepaid insurance
2010/09/01
NTUIB
41
Classified Balance Sheet
Accounting 2010
2010/09/01
NTUIB
42
Inventory Accounting Systems
Accounting 2010
會計期間終了時, 須就期末存貨作正確的計價, 存
貨計價涉及單位成本及存貨數量兩項.
方法
 The perpetual inventory system (永續盤存制度) : 不斷
更新商品存貨數
 The periodic inventory system (定期盤存制度) : 在期
末定期盤點存貨後, 方便更新帳上現有商品數.
差異
 更新帳上商品存貨數, 以反應實際商品存貨之頻率
 實際現存商品存貨數vs.帳上現存商品存貨數
2010/09/01
NTUIB
43
定期盤存制(Periodic Inventory System)
Accounting 2010
在每一期間內不須維持所持有存貨之詳細記錄。
銷貨成本(Cost of goods sold)僅於會計期間結束進
行存貨盤點時始加以決定。
 Separate accounts used to record purchases, freight
costs, returns, and discounts.
 Company does not maintain a running account of
changes in inventory.
 Ending inventory determined by physical count.
銷貨成本=期初存貨+本期進貨-期末存貨
2010/09/01
NTUIB
44
定期盤存制度(Periodic Inventory System)
Accounting 2010
 平時只對進貨予以記錄, 銷售時不記錄存貨減少 (即不立
即記錄銷貨成本), 俟期末(或定期)盤點求得期末存貨後, 再
計算銷貨成本, 故又稱實地盤存制(Physical inventory
system).
 銷貨成本=期初存貨+本期進貨-期末存貨
 特性:
 進貨時不借記「存貨」,而另設一過渡性科目「進貨」,即借記
「進貨」,貸記「應付帳款」或「現金」。
 期末盤點存貨時,將期末存貨轉入「存貨」科目,此一期末存貨
即為下年度之期初存貨。
 年底做調整分錄時,將期初存貨及當期進貨均轉入銷貨成本(或「
本期損益」),並將當期之期末存貨從銷貨成本(或「本期損益」)
轉出,即借記「存貨」,貸記「銷貨成本」或「本期損益」
2010/09/01
NTUIB
45
定期盤存制(Periodic Inventory System)
Accounting 2010
 適用情況
 出售低價之商品且商品存貨尚未電腦化。
 會計記錄
進貨時:進貨(purchase)
現金
XXX
銷貨時:現金
XXX
XXX
銷貨(sale)
(存貨不記減少的分錄)
XXX
 特性
 不使用商品存貨科目來記錄每一商品進銷貨狀況, 依據期末實際盤
點之存貨數量, 作為帳上存貨餘額, 到期末才知帳上存貨餘額.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
46
買方
Accounting 2010
茲設例說明兩種盤存制度之帳務處理如下:
交 易 事 項
永 續 盤 存 制
實 地 盤 存 制
(1)5/4 賒購商品$3,800 存
貨
3,800
進 貨
3,800
應付帳款 3,800 應付帳款
3,800
(2)5/8 退回商品$300
應付帳款
300
應付帳款
300
存 貨
300
進貨退出
300
(3)5/9 付運費$150
(4)5/14 支付貨款
2010/09/01
存 貨
150
進貨運費
150
現 金
150
現 金
150
應付帳款 3,500
應付帳款 3,500
現 金
3,430
現 金
3,430
存 貨
70
進貨折扣
70
NTUIB
47
賣方
Accounting 2010
茲設例說明兩種盤存制度之帳務處理如下:
交 易 事 項
永 續 盤 存 制
實 地 盤 存 制
(1)5/4賒銷(售價$3,800) 應收帳款 3,800
應收帳款
3,800
, 商品成本$2,400.
銷貨收入
3,800
銷貨收入
3,800
銷貨成本 2,400
(無)
存 貨
2,400
(2)5/8銷貨退回$300
銷貨退回
300
銷貨退回
300
, 商品成本$2,400
應收帳款
300
應收帳款
300
存 貨
140
(無)
銷貨成本
140
(3)5/15 帳款收現
現 金 3,430
現 金
3,430
銷貨折扣
70
銷貨折扣
70
應收帳款
3,500
應收帳款
3,500
2010/09/01
NTUIB
48
Calculation of Cost of Goods Sold
Under a Periodic System Accounting 2010
$316,000
2010/09/01
NTUIB
49
常用計算公式
Accounting 2010
1. 銷貨淨額(Net sale)=銷貨總額(Total sale)-銷貨折扣(Sale discount)銷貨退回與讓價(Sale return and allowance)
2. 進貨淨額(Net purchase)=進貨(Purchase)-進貨折扣(Purchase
discount) -進貨退出與讓價(Purchase return and allowance)
3. 進貨成本(Cost of goods purchased)=進貨運費(Freight-in)+進貨淨額
(Net purchase)
4. 可售商品(Cost of goods purchased)=期初存貨+進貨成本(Cost of
goods purchased)
5. 銷貨成本(Cost of goods sold; COGS)=可售商品-期末存貨
6. 銷貨毛利(Gross profit)=銷貨淨額(Nnet sale)-銷貨成本(COGS)
7. 營業淨利(Income from operations)=銷貨毛利-營業費用(Operating
expense)
8. 本期淨利=營業淨利+非營業收入(Other revenue or gains)-非營業費
用(Other expense or losses)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
50
Inventory
Accounting 2010
 Describe steps in determining inventory
quantities
 Explain the accounting for inventories and
apply the inventory cost flow methods
 Explain the financial effects of the inventory
cost flow assumptions.
 Indicate the effects of inventory errors on the
financial statements
 Compute and interpret inventory turnover
2010/09/01
NTUIB
51
Classifying Inventory
Accounting 2010
Manufacturing
Company(製造業)
Merchandising
Company(買賣業)
One Classification:
Three Classifications:
Merchandise Inventory
Raw Materials(原料)
(商品存貨)
Work in Process(再製品)
Finished Goods(製成品)
Regardless of the classification, companies report all
inventories under Current Assets on the balance sheet.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
52
Merchandise Inventory之兩大特性
Accounting 2010
 公司所擁有(Owned by the company )
 凡是企業擁有所有權者,即是企業之存貨。
 在正常營業的過程中,隨時用來再出售(Ready for sale)
 存貨係指向外購入擬於正常營業過程中直接出售,或經加工後再
出售之商品財貨。
 目的在於留存自用,則不屬於存貨的範圍。
-例如從事機器設備製造、買賣的廠商,庫存備供出售的機器設
備即為存貨。
-但若購入之機器設備係用來製造、生產產品之用,則應列為固
定資產。故是否擬於正常營業過程中「再出售」,為判定是否
為存貨資產之要件。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
53
Classifying Inventory in Manufacturing
Accounting 2010
Classified into three categories:
1. Finished goods: Ready for sale
2. Work in process: Various stages of production
(not completed)
3. Raw materials: Components on hand waiting to be
used
2010/09/01
NTUIB
54
存貨數量之決定
Accounting 2010
 財務報表日需瞭解存貨數量, 並評定其價值, 以編制F/S.
 存貨數量的決定, 需先確定下列
 實地盤點庫存量(Taking a physical inventory)
 確定是否具有所有權(Ownership)
 為何要taking a Physical Inventory?
 Perpetual System
 Check accuracy of inventory records.
 Determine amount of inventory lost (wasted raw materials,
shoplifting, or employee theft).
 Periodic System
 確定還有多少庫存存貨
 決定當期的cost of goods sold
 At end of the accounting period.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
55
Determining Ownership of Goods
Accounting 2010
 在途商品(Goods in transit): Purchased goods not yet
received.
 所有權(Legal title)歸屬: 視約定條件而定, 進貨條件可分為
 起運點交貨(FOB shipping point):商品一旦交予運送人, 所有權即
移轉給買方
=>列為買方之存貨, 運費由買方負擔.
 目的地交貨(FOB destination): 須待商品運交買方指定的地點, 所
有權才移轉給買方, 故未送達目的地前, 其所有權仍屬於賣方所有
=>列為賣方之存貨, 運費由賣方負擔.
 僅接獲訂單而尚未運出之商品(Sold goods not yet delivered),仍
為賣方之存貨。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
56
Terms of Sale (銷貨條件)
Accounting 2010
Ownership of the goods
passes to the buyer when
the public carrier accepts
the goods from the seller.
Ownership of the goods
remains with the seller
until the goods reach the
buyer.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
57
確定商品所有權
Accounting 2010
寄銷品(Goods of consignment)
 根據寄銷合約(consignment arrangement) , 商品持有
人(稱為承銷人consignee), 並非商品的所有者(owner),
在商品出售給顧客之前, 所有權仍屬商品的貨主 (稱寄
銷人consignor), 故寄銷品不應包括承銷人的存貨數量
中.
寄銷人擁有商品,不計入承銷人之存貨
2010/09/01
NTUIB
Consignee Company
58
銷貨成本之計算
Accounting 2010
1. 可售商品(Cost of goods available for sale)
= 進貨成本(Cost of goods purchased )
+ 期初存貨(Beginning cost of goods on hand)
2. COGS
= 可售商品(Cost of goods available for sale)
- 期末存貨(Ending cost of goods on hand)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
59
Allocation (Matching) of Pool Costs
Accounting 2010
Pool of Costs
Cost of Goods Available for Sale
Beginning inventory
$ 20,000
Cost of goods purchased
100,000
Cost of goods available for sale $ 120,000
Step 1
Ending Inventory
Unit
Total
Units Cost
Cost
5,000 $ 3.00 $15,000
2010/09/01
Step 2
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods available for sale
Less: Ending inventory
Cost of goods sold
NTUIB
$120,000
15,000
$105,000
60
定期制下存貨成本之計算
Accounting 2010
同一年度內進貨, 每批單位成本可能不同, 則期末
存貨及銷貨成本如何計算?
在面臨不同的進貨單價時, 如何選擇其一或數個單
位成本, 乘上存貨數量, 用來作為計算期末存貨價
值的依據?
每次進貨單價未必相同, 故要採取成本流動假設
(cost flow assumption)
 個別認定法, Specific Identification
 先進先出, First-in, first-out (FIFO)
 後進先出, Last-in, first-out (LIFO)
 平均法, Average cost
2010/09/01
NTUIB
61
個別認定法(Specific Identification)
Accounting 2010
此法能將會計成本與商品實際流動(actual
physical flow)之情形配合, 不需強調成本之認定時
間, 每項存貨都貼上標籤邊以顯示單價.
 期末以庫存商品單價加總, 得出期末存貨.
適用情況
 當公司產品為大型商品且易於辨認者 (如珠寶、汽車).
定期盤存與永續盤存制到的結果為相同
由於個別認定法執行上有些不切實際, 故可採其他
方法.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
62
Using Assumed Cost Flow Methods
Accounting 2010
由於個別認定法執行上有些不切實際,故可採其他
方法.
其他方法所假設的成本流程與實際進貨先流程並
不相同.
擬制性的成本流動方法或假設(assumed cost flow
methods or cost flow assumptions).
1. 先進先出 (First-in, first-out, FIFO)
2. 後進先出 (Last-in, first-out, LIFO)
3. 平均法 (Average cost)
加權平均法(Weighted average unit cost )
移動加權平均法(Moving average )
2010/09/01
NTUIB
63
先進先出法(First-in, first-out)
Accounting 2010
 假設先購入之商品先賣出, 期末存貨必是最後購買的商品.
 適用情況
 公司為避免損壞所引起之損失,最先購入者必須先出售。ex.蔬菜
、鮮奶…
 在定期盤存制下或永續盤制下使用此法, 其結果相同.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
64
ALLOCATION OF COSTS - FIFO
Accounting 2010
Date
01/01
04/15
08/24
11/27
Pool of Costs
Cost of Goods Available for Sale
Unit
Total
Explanation
Units Cost
Cost
Beginning inventory
100 $10
$ 1,000
Purchase
200 11
2,200
Purchase
300 12
3,600
Purchase
400 13
5,200
$ 12,000
Total
1,000
Step 1
Ending Inventory
Unit
Total
Date Units Cost
Cost
11/27
400 $ 13 $ 5,200
08/24
50
12
600
450
5800
2010/09/01
Step 2
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods available for sale
Less: Ending inventory
Cost of goods sold
NTUIB
$ 12,000
5,800
$6200
65
後進先出法(Last-in, first-out)
Accounting 2010
 假設後購買之商品先賣出, 即期末存貨為早期購入之成本.
 適用情況
 適用於木材、煤炭, 不斷堆積, 愈晚堆積者較先被使用.
 在定期盤存制下或永續盤存制下所計算的結果不一定相同
 原因是永續盤存制須隨時記錄銷貨成本, 故早期買入之存貨有可能
被轉入銷貨成本, 並未包括在期末存貨中, 最後一批買入之存貨反而
包括在期末存貨中. 而在定期盤存制下,所有期末存貨均為最早購
入者。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
66
Allocation of Costs - LIFO
Accounting 2010
Date
01/01
04/15
08/24
11/27
Pool of Costs
Cost of Goods Available for Sale
Unit
Total
Explanation
Units Cost
Cost
Beginning inventory
100 $10
$ 1,000
Purchase
200 11
2,200
Purchase
300 12
3,600
Purchase
400 13
5,200
Total
1,000
$ 12,000
Step 1
Ending Inventory
Unit
Total
Date Units Cost
Cost
01/01
100 $ 10 $ 1,000
04/15
200
11
2,200
08/24
150
12
1,800
450
5,000
2010/09/01
Step 2
Cost of Goods Sold
Cost of goods available for sale
Less: Ending inventory
Cost of goods sold
NTUIB
$ 12,000
5,000
$7,000
67
加權平均法(Weighted Average)
Accounting 2010
加權平均法(Weighted average unit cost )
 按照當期平均單位成本計算期末存貨及銷貨成本。其
假定商品是相同的(homogeneous)
 僅適用於實地盤存制
※平均單位成本=全年度可售商品總額÷可售商品數量
※期末存貨成本=平均單位成本 × 期末存貨數量
移動加權平均法(Moving average )
 於每次進貨時,如單價與厙存商品單價不同,即應重
新計算一次平均單價。
 僅適用永續盤存制
※每次進貨之單價成本=未售商品總額÷未售商品數量
2010/09/01
NTUIB
68
加權平均法(Weighted Average)
Accounting 2010
2010/09/01
NTUIB
69
加權平均法(Weighted Average)
Accounting 2010
Date
01/01
04/15
08/24
11/27
Pool of Costs
Cost of Goods Available for Sale
Unit
Total
Explanation
Units Cost
Cost
Beginning inventory
100 $10
$ 1,000
Purchase
200 11
2,200
Purchase
300 12
3,600
Purchase
400 13
5,200
Total
1,000
$ 12,000
Step 1
Ending Inventory
$ 12,000 ÷
1,000 =
Unit
Units
Cost
450 x $ 12.00 =
2010/09/01
Step 2
Cost of Goods Sold
$12.00
Total
Cost
$ 5,400
Cost of goods available for sale
Less: Ending inventory
Cost of goods sold
NTUIB
$ 12,000
5,400
$ 6,600
70
Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions
Accounting 2010
Example
Y Company makes the following purchases:
1.
One item on 2/2/07 for $10
2.
One item on 2/15/07 for $15
3.
One item on 2/25/07 for $20
Y Company sells one item on 2/28/07 for $90. Assume
a tax rate of 30%.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
71
Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions
Accounting 2010
“First-In-First-Out
(FIFO)” Young & Crazy Company
Inventory
Balance = $ 35
Income Statement
For the Month of Feb. 2007
Sales
Cost of goods sold
Gross profit
Expenses:
Administrative
Selling
Interest
Total expenses
Income before tax
Taxes
Net Income
Purchase on
2/25/07 for $20
Purchase on
2/15/07 for $15
Purchase on
2/2/07 for $10
2010/09/01
NTUIB
$ 90
10
80
14
12
7
33
47
14
$ 33
72
Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions
Accounting 2010
“Last-In-First-Out (LIFO)”
Inventory
Balance = $ 25
Young & Crazy Company
Income Statement
For the Month of Feb. 2007
Sales
Cost of goods sold
Gross profit
Expenses:
Administrative
Selling
Interest
Total expenses
Income before tax
Taxes
Net Income
Purchase on
2/25/07 for $20
Purchase on
2/15/07 for $15
Purchase on
2/2/07 for $10
2010/09/01
NTUIB
$ 90
20
70
14
12
7
33
37
11
$ 26
73
Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions
“Average Cost”
Inventory
Balance = $ 30
Young & Crazy Company
Income Statement
For the Month of Feb. 2007
Sales
Cost of goods sold
Gross profit
Expenses:
Administrative
Selling
Interest
Total expenses
Income before tax
Taxes
Net Income
Purchase on
2/25/07 for $20
Purchase on
2/15/07 for $15
Purchase on
2/2/07 for $10
2010/09/01
Accounting 2010
NTUIB
$ 90
15
75
14
12
7
33
42
12
$ 30
74
Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions
Accounting 2010
Comparative Financial Statement Summary
FIFO
Average
LIFO
$90
$90
$90
Cost of goods sold
10
15
20
Gross profit
80
75
70
Admin. & selling expense
33
33
33
Income before taxes
47
42
37
Income tax expense
14
12
11
Net income
$33
$30
$26
Inventory balance
$35
$30
$25
Sales
2010/09/01
NTUIB
75
Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions
Accounting 2010
In Period of Rising Prices, FIFO Reports:
Lowest
Highest
2010/09/01
FIFO
Average
LIFO
$90
$90
$90
Cost of goods sold
10
15
20
Gross profit
80
75
70
Admin. & selling expense
33
33
33
Income before taxes
47
42
37
Income tax expense
14
12
11
Net income
$33
$30
$26
Inventory balance
$35
$30
$25
Sales
NTUIB
76
Inventory Costing – Cost Flow Assumptions
Accounting 2010
In Period of Rising Prices, LIFO Reports:
Highest
Lowest
2010/09/01
FIFO
Average
LIFO
$90
$90
$90
Cost of goods sold
10
15
20
Gross profit
80
75
70
Admin. & selling expense
33
33
33
Income before taxes
47
42
37
Income tax expense
14
12
11
Net income
$33
$30
$26
Inventory balance
$35
$30
$25
Sales
NTUIB
77
Decision ethics
Accounting 2010
 公司採用不同成本流程的
理由,主要考量:
(1) Income statement effects
→ earnings 誰比較大
(2) Balance sheet effects
→ 期末存貨誰比較大
(3) Tax effects
→ 課的稅誰比較大
2010/09/01
NTUIB
 Your compensation as
inventory manager includes
a bonus based on gross
profit.
 Your boss asks you opinion
on changing the inventory
costing method from FIFO
to LIFO.
 Since costs are expected to
continue to rise, your boss
predicts that LIFO would
match higher current costs
against sales, thereby
lowering taxable income.
 What do you recommend?
78
Income Statement Effects Compared
Accounting 2010
(1) K Company於1/10 購買 200 單位XR492s,單價$20; 12/31又購入 200單
位,單價 $24.當年出售 200 units,售價$30 .
(2) LIFO下, 公司收回了重置成本( the current replacement cost) $4,800.
(3) FIFO下,公司 僅回收1/10的成本 ($4,000).
(4) 如果想重置所出售的商品,需要再出 $800 (200 x $4) . 因而gross profit
將減少$800. 這 $800 gross profit 稱為虛假淨利( phantom or illusory
profits).也就是高估淨利$800.
Sales (200 x $30)
Cost of goods sold
Gross profit
2010/09/01
FIFO
$ 6,000
4,000 (200 x $20)
$ 2,000
Average
Cost
$ 6,000
4,400 (200 x $22)
$ 1,600
NTUIB
LIFO
$ 6,000
4,800 (200 x $24)
$ 1,200
79
各種成本假設之評述 - 個別辨認法
Accounting 2010
優點
 COGS為實際出售之成本
 期末存貨亦為真實庫存之成本
 會計流程與實際商品流程一致
 此法對易於辨認之商品是適合的
缺點:可操縱損益
2010/09/01
NTUIB
80
各種成本假設之評述 - LIFO法
Accounting 2010
優點
 通貨膨脹期間,可以節稅。
 能顯示於繼續補充存貨下,公司可分配給股東之實際
利益,可避免 FIFO下認列之紙上利潤。
 Sales和COGS皆為實際收入與成本,銷貨毛利中不含
有FIFO之存貨利益,更能評估管理者之獲利能力。
缺點
 會計流程與商品之實際流程不一致。
 易操縱損益,使COGS↑,期末購進高價格之存貨,為
使COGS↓將高價格之進貨延至下期。
 期末存貨被低估。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
81
各種成本假設之評述 - FIFO法
Accounting 2010
優點
 易於使用
 無法操縱損益
 會計流程與商品實際流程一致(大量商品)
 期末存貨之評價接近市價。
 缺點
 會認列紙上利潤(paper profit)
 通貨膨脹期間,所得稅負擔較重。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
82
各種成本假設之評述 - 加權平均法
Accounting 2010
優點
 在物價膨脹期間,期末存貨不像LIFO被低估,可是銷
貨成本亦不能像LIFO般反映現時成本。
缺點
 仍可操縱損益,但是不像LIFO般嚴重。
※沒有一種方法是最好,會計上,上述方法符合GAAP,公
司可以變更存貨之會計方法,但需附註說明變更之理由。
※要一致性(consistently)使用存貨之會計方法, 才可增加各
其F/S的比較性(comparability).
2010/09/01
NTUIB
83
Inventory Errors
Accounting 2010
Common Cause
 Failure to count or price inventory correctly.
 Not properly recognizing the transfer of legal title to
goods in transit.
 Errors affect both the income statement and balance
sheet.
影響
 期初與期末存貨都會出現在損益表
 Inventory errors 會影響COGS與淨利
影響資產負債表上存貨之表達
影響損益表上銷貨成本及本期損益的決定
影響下期損益之計算
2010/09/01
NTUIB
84
Inventory Errors
Accounting 2010
2008
2009
Incorrect
Correct
Incorrect
Correct
$ 80,000
$ 80,000
$ 90,000
$ 90,000
Beginning inventory
20,000
20,000
12,000
15,000
Cost of goods purchased
40,000
40,000
68,000
68,000
Cost of goods available
60,000
60,000
80,000
83,000
Ending inventory
12,000
15,000
23,000
23,000
Cost of good sold
48,000
45,000
57,000
60,000
Gross profit
32,000
35,000
33,000
30,000
Operating expenses
10,000
10,000
20,000
20,000
$ 22,000
$ 25,000
$ 13,000
$ 10,000
Sales
Net income
Combined income for
2-year period is correct.
2010/09/01
($3,000)
Net Income
understated
NTUIB
$3,000
Net Income
overstated
85
Inventory Errors - Income Statement Effects
Accounting 2010
存貨錯誤會影響到兩期(本期與下期)的Cost of
goods sold 與淨利.
 當期期末存貨的錯誤對於影於的影響, 會在下期產生方
向相反的錯誤(reverse effect).
但是兩年合計的總淨利是正確的,why?
 Because the errors offset each other.
當期期末存貨是否正確, 完全取決於盤點與計價是
否正確, 與之前其他錯誤無關.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
86
Inventory Errors - Balance Sheet Effects
Accounting 2010
存貨錯誤對於資產負債表的影響,可由下式了解:
2010/09/01
NTUIB
87
Q
132
 Neal Pharmacy reported cost of goods sold as follows:
Beginning inventory
Cost of goods purchased
Cost of goods available for sale
Ending inventory
Cost of goods sold
2004
$ 54,000
847,000
901,000
64,000
$837,000
2005
$ 64,000
891,000
955,000
55,000
$900,000
Accounting 2010
Neal made two errors:
(1) 2004 ending inventory was overstated by $8,000.
(2) 2005 ending inventory was understated by $20,000.
 Instructions
Assuming the errors had not been corrected, indicate the dollar effect that the errors had
on the items appearing on the financial statements listed below. Also indicate if the
amounts are overstated (O) or understated (U).
2004
2005
Total assets
Owner’s equity
Cost of goods sold
Net income
2010/09/01
Overstated/
Amount
Understated
$_________ _______
$_________ _______
$_________ _______
$_________ _______
NTUIB
Overstated/
Amount Understated
$_________ _______
$_________ _______
$_________ _______
$_________ _______
88
Accounting 2010














Amount
Total assets
$8,000
Owner’s equity
$8,000
Cost of goods sold $8,000
Net income
$8,000
Correct cost of goods sold:
2004
Overstated/
Understated
O
O
U
O
2004
Beginning inventory
$ 54,000
Cost of goods purchased
847,000
Cost of goods available for sale 901,000
Ending inventory
56,000
Cost of goods sold
$845,000
2010/09/01
NTUIB
2005
Overstated/
Amount Understated
$20,000
U
$20,000
U
$28,000
O
$28,000
U
2005
$ 56,000
891,000
947,000
75,000
$872,000
89
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Accounting 2010
 Inventory
 Classified as a current asset after receivables in the balance sheet
 Cost of goods sold
 Subtracted from sales in the income statement
 Disclosure either in the balance sheet or in accompanying
notes of:
 1. Major inventory classifications
 2. Basis of accounting (cost or lower of cost or market)
 3. Costing method (FIFO, LIFO, or average cost)
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc
Notes to the Financial Statements
Note 1. Summary of accounting policies
Inventories
The company uses the retail, last-in, first-out (LIFO) method for the Wal-Mart Stores segment, cost LIFO for the
SAM’S CLUB segment, and other cost methods, including the retail first-in, first-out (FIFO) and average costs
methods, for the International segment. Inventories are not recorded in excess of market value.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
90
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Accounting 2010
Analysis
Inventory management is a double-edged sword
1. High Inventory Levels - may incur high carrying
costs (e.g., investment, storage, insurance,
obsolescence, and damage).
2. Low Inventory Levels – may lead to stockouts and
lost sales.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
91
存貨週轉率(Inventory Turnover Ratio, ITR)
Accounting 2010
 意義: 衡量一年內存貨銷售的次數
 目的: 評估存貨的流動性
 方法:
 ITR=COGS / 平均存貨
 平均銷售天數*= 365 / ITR
*average days to sell inventory
 ITR愈大,or平均銷售天數愈小,表示週轉率愈快
 計算出存貨週轉率與存貨週轉平均天數=>如何評估存貨政
策與管理=>公司歷年趨勢和同業平均水準變化作比較。
 與同業比較時,首先檢討存貨評價方式(如後進先出、先
進先出、平均法等)是否相同,因不同方式會造成銷貨成
本與期末存貨的不同。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
92
Example
Accounting 2010
 Case A
 Sale $4,000; purchase $ 3,600; sale return $ 8;
purchase discount $ 100; inventory (1/1) $ 200;
freight-in $100; inventory (12/31) $ 400
 存貨週轉率?平均銷售天數?
 Case B
 身為零售店的老闆,你們的存貨週轉率與平均銷售天數分別為5.0
與73天,但同業平均數為4.4與74天
 What is your assessment of inventory management?
2010/09/01
NTUIB
93
解析
Accounting 2010
 存貨週轉率與銷貨成本及存貨數字有關,故上列銷
貨及銷貨退回金額不必用於計算中。
 銷貨成本
=期初存貨 + 進貨淨額 – 期末存貨
=期初存貨 + (進貨–進貨折扣+進貨運費) – 期末存貨
=$200 +($3,600- $100 + $60)– $400
=$3,360
 平均存貨 =($200 + $400)÷ 2 = $300
 存貨週轉率 =(3,360 ÷300)=11.2(次)
 存貨週轉平均天數 = 365 ÷1.2 =32.6(天)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
94
存貨估計的方法
Accounting 2010
企業存貨種類繁多, 平時要維持進、銷、存之明細
記錄, 所費不貲, 而定期盤點存貨更是費事費時.因
此, 該等企業大多僅一年實地盤點存貨一次.
下列情況下需估計存貨而非盤點存貨:
 管理當局需編制月報或季報,但盤點卻在年底.
 火災等意外災害發生無法時地進行盤點.
存貨估計的方法 :
 毛利法(gross profit method) and
 零售價法(retail inventory method).
2010/09/01
NTUIB
95
毛利法(Gross Profit Method)
Accounting 2010
意義
 乃是根據企業過去年度之平均毛利率,以估計本期之
銷貨成本及期末存貨的一種方法。
適用情況
 便於會計師及內部稽核人員,查核公司存貨計價之合
理性。
 企業遭受意外災害時,用以估計損失之金額。
計算公式
 毛利率=銷貨毛利/銷貨淨額
 估計銷貨毛利=銷貨淨額×毛利率
 估計銷貨成本=銷貨淨額-估計銷貨毛利
 估計期末存貨=可售商品總額-銷貨成本
2010/09/01
NTUIB
96
釋例
Accounting 2010
假設公司期初存貨為$40,000,當期的進貨淨額
$120,000,net sale $200,000,又假設過去數年
之平均毛利率為銷貨淨額之30%。則期末存貨估
算如下:
(1)銷貨淨額×毛利率=銷貨毛利
$200,000×30%=$60,000
(2)銷貨淨額-銷貨毛利=銷貨成本
$200,000-$60,000=$140,000
(3)期初存貨+進貨淨額-銷貨成本=期末存貨
$40,000+$120,000-$140,000=$20,000
2010/09/01
NTUIB
97
說明
Accounting 2010
凡是業務有顯著季節性的行業,於淡季或旺季估
計存貨時,也應注意毛利率有所不同。通常旺季
時售價高,毛利率高,淡季時可能降價求售,毛
利率會降低,估計存貨時應適用不同的毛利率。
以毛利法估計存貨時,能否得到可靠的數值,關
鍵在於毛利率。因此若本年度之售價、進貨成本
有大幅異動,或銷貨組合有改變,以致於影響本
期毛利率與前期毛利率有顯著不同時,應作適度
調整。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
98
零售價法(Retail Inventory Method)
Accounting 2010
意義
 乃是利用本期可供銷售商品之成本率, 以估計期末存貨
成本的方法. 零售價法廣泛使用於連鎖商店、百貨公司
及其他零售商店.
 採零售價法, 須有期初存貨與當期所有進貨之零售價與
成本的記錄.
=>即平時買進商品時要記錄成本, 也需將售價資料加以記
載, 以計算當期可供銷售商品之成本與零售價資料.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
99
零售價法(Retail Inventory Method)
Accounting 2010
計算公式
 銷貨淨額=銷貨總額-銷貨退回
 期末存貨售價=可售商品之總售價-銷貨淨額
 成本率=可售商品總成本÷可售商品總售價
 估計期末存貨=期末存貨零售價×成本率
適用情況
 商品種類繁多又無法實施永續盤存制之零售百貨公司
 加速期末存貨之盤點
 簡化帳務處理程序
2010/09/01
NTUIB
100
零售價零售價法(Retail Inventory Method)
Accounting 2010
 下列為發財公司有關存貨的資料,茲以零售價法估計期末
存貨如下:
成 本
期初存貨
進貨淨額
可供銷售商品
減:銷貨收入淨額
按零售價計算之期末存貨
按成本計價之期末存貨
$14,000
61,000
$75,000
$22,500*
零售價
$ 21,500
78,500
$100,000
(70,000)
$ 30,000
($30,000×75%)*
*成本比率=($75,000÷$100,000)=75%
2010/09/01
NTUIB
101
零售價零售價法(Retail Inventory Method)
Accounting 2010
 期初存貨之零售價($21,500)加上本期進貨零售價
($78,500)等於可供銷售商品的零售價($100,000)
,減去本期銷貨收入$70,000後,為按零售價計
算的期末存貨($30,000),其計算列示如下:
可售商品零售價 $100,000 (可銷售量×單位售價)
銷貨收入
(70,000) (已銷售量×單位售價)
期末存貨零售價 $30,000 (庫存量×單位售價)
成本比率
75%
存貨成本
$ 22,500
2010/09/01
NTUIB
102
零售價零售價法(Retail Inventory Method)
Accounting 2010
 上例中,可供銷售商品成本除以可供銷售商品零
售價得成本比率為75%,意指平均進貨成本為零
售價的75%。
 企業對商品原訂之售價並非一成不變,往往因應
市場需求、同業競爭、及業務之淡、旺季等因素
而有所調整。採用零售價法估計存貨時,必須考
慮售價之調整與變動。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
103
Accounting for Receivables
Accounting 2010
1. Identify the different types of receivables.
2. Explain how accounts receivable are recognized in the
accounts.
3. Distinguish between the methods and bases used to
value accounts receivable.
4. Compute the maturity date of and interest on notes
receivable.
5. Explain how notes receivable are recognized in the
accounts.
6. Explain the statement presentation and analysis of
receivables.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
104
Recognizing Accounts Receivable
Accounting 2010
 2008年7月1日Jordache公司賒銷$1000商品給Polo公司,
條件2/10、n/30
General Journal
Date
July 1
2010/09/01
Account Titles
Debit
Accounts Receivable – Polo Co.1,000
Sales
NTUIB
Credit
1,000
105
Recognizing Accounts Receivable
Accounting 2010
 2005年8月5日Polo公司退還Jordache公司$100的商
品
General Journal
Date
July 5
2010/09/01
Account Titles
Debit
Sales Returns and Allowances
Accounts Receivable – Polo Company
100
NTUIB
Credit
100
106
Recognizing Accounts Receivable
Accounting 2010
2008年7月11日Jordache公司收到Polo公司支付
之剩餘欠款
Cash ($900-$18)
Sales Discounts ($900 x .02)
Accounts Receivable – Polo Company
(To record collection of AR)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
882
18
900
107
Valuing Accounts Receivable: Trade discount
Accounting 2010
商業折扣係企業因應市場供需, 及對不同形態的顧
客(如批發商或零售商), 按定價給予折減的金額.
 例如定價$1,000之貨品, 折減30%出售, 實際售價為
$700,商業折扣為30%, 即$300, 一般習稱七折.
商業買賣交易亦有就減除折扣後之金額再予折扣,
即所謂的連鎖折扣.
 如折減30%後再折減20%, 俗稱七折八扣, 實際成交價
為$560。
商業折扣: 不入帳, 以實際成交價格認列進貨成本
及銷貨收入.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
108
Valuing Accounts Receivable: Cash discount
Accounting 2010
企業於同意賒銷後, 通常訂有收款的最後期限, 稱
為信用期限(credit period), 在信用期限內並不催
收貨款.
在美國為鼓勵顧客儘早付款, 多另訂有折扣期限
(discount period), 若能在折扣期限內付款者, 可以
再減收若干金額, 而使實際的現金收入減少, 此種
情況稱之為現金折扣.
現金折扣的條件如: 2/10, n/30
2010/09/01
NTUIB
109
Valuing Accounts Receivable: Bad Debt
Accounting 2010
 壞帳或呆帳(bad debt)
 賒銷產生的應收帳款, 發生無法收回的情形.
 賒銷前應對顧客信用嚴加審核. 但過度嚴苛, 導致銷貨減少, 故兩者
間須取得均衡, 企業通常係採利潤最大化的授信政策。
 Debited to Bad Debts Expense
 壞帳費用之根據:
 Matching principle:因銷貨而發生, 故應在銷貨當年認列.
 Conservatism principle:無法回收之AR, 應沖銷, 以免高估資產.
 應收帳款能否收回, 銷貨時無法確知, 因此年底須估計應收
帳款收現的可能性, 即估計壞帳及應收帳款的Cash (net)
realizable value.
2010/09/01
NTUIB
110
Valuing Accounts Receivable: Bad Debt
Accounting 2010
直接沖銷法(Direct write-off method):
備抵法(Allowance method)
 銷貨收入百分比法(Percentage of sales)
 帳款餘額百分比法(Percentage of receivables)
1. 綜合比率法
2. 帳齡分析法(Aging of AR)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
111
直接沖銷法(Direct write-off method)
Accounting 2010
意義
 即賒銷後, 直到帳款確定無法收回時, 才認列壞帳損失,
其分錄如下:
Bad Debts Expense
×××
Accounts Receivable
×××
缺點
 收益與費用可能分別列於不同會計期間, 不符配合原則.
 高估資產, 違反穩健原則.
GAAP不採行
2010/09/01
NTUIB
112
直接沖銷法(Direct write-off method)
Accounting 2010
Worden公司在12月12日,將M.E.Doran之欠款認
定無法收回,故將餘額$200列為壞帳費用
General Journal
Date
Dec. 12
2010/09/01
Account Titles
Bad Debts Expense
Accounts Receivable – M.E. Doran
NTUIB
Debit
200
Credit
200
113
備抵法(Allowance method)
Accounting 2010
意義
 過去經驗, 並參酌目前及未來的經濟情況, 估計壞帳發
生的可能金額, 預先提列.
使用備抵法費用與收入較能配合,且在資產負債
表中應收帳款會以淨變現價值表示:
應收帳款
$××××
減:備抵壞帳(Allowance for Doubtful Accounts) ( ×××)
應收帳款淨額
2010/09/01
NTUIB
$××××
114
備抵法(Allowance method)
Accounting 2010
 Hampson Furniture在2002年賒銷$12,000,000, 12月31日尚
有$200,000未收現, 估計其中$12,000將無法收回.
General Journal
Date
Dec. 31
2010/09/01
Account Titles
Debit
Bad Debts Expense
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
NTUIB
Credit
12,000
12,000
115
Presentation of AR: Allowance method
Accounting 2010
Assets ($1,000)
Current Assets:
Cash
Accounts receivable
Less: Allowance for doubtful accounts
Inventory
Prepaid
Total current assets
2010/09/01
NTUIB
200
12
$ 148
188
310
25
537.8
116
備抵法(Allowance method)
Accounting 2010
 Hampson Furniture的財務經理逾2003年3月1日經核准沖
銷(如倒閉,逃匿,or破產宣告者)R.A.Ware的應收帳款$500
 Write-off:在備抵法下,沖銷壞帳是借記備抵壞帳而不是
壞帳費用
General Journal
Date
Account Titles
Mar. 1
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts Receivable - R. A. Ware
2010/09/01
Debit
NTUIB
Credit
500
500
117
備抵法(Allowance method)
Accounting 2010
Recovery (收回已沖銷的壞帳)
 R.A.Ware 於7月1日付清已在3月1日沖銷之應收帳款
$500
July 11 (recovery):
(1)轉回沖銷的分錄
Accounts receivable
1,100
Allowance for doubtful accounts
1,100
(2)記錄應收帳款的收現
Cash
Accounts receivable
2010/09/01
NTUIB
1,100
1,100
118
備抵法(Allowance method)
Accounting 2010
備抵法因為估計壞帳的基礎不同,又可分為
 銷貨收入百分比法(Percentage of sales)及
 帳款餘額百分比法(Percentage of receivables),
這兩種方法都符合GAAP。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
119
Percentage of Sale (又稱損益表法)
Accounting 2010
意義:
 Expected bad debt losses are determined by
applying the percentage to the sales base of the
current period(並參考本年度經濟情況,加以調整)。
方法: 壞帳時係以當期銷貨收入乘上壞帳率,即可
計算出當期壞帳費用
優點:這個方法是強調收入與費用的配合
2010/09/01
NTUIB
120
Percentage of Sale
Accounting 2010
Gonzalazes公司採用銷貨收入百分比法, 該公司
評估賒銷淨額的1%, 將會成為壞帳. 2002年賒銷
淨額是$800,000, 則壞帳費用為$8,000(1%*
$800,000)
General Journal
Date
Dec. 31
2010/09/01
Account Titles
Debit
Bad Debts Expense
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
NTUIB
Credit
8,000
8,000
121
Percentage of A/R (又稱資產負債法)
Accounting 2010
意義: 以應收帳款餘額估列壞帳
 綜合比率法
 帳齡分析法
1. 綜合比率法
 期末應收帳款*壞帳率=應有之備抵壞帳餘額
 應提列之壞帳費用=應有之備抵壞帳餘額+ or – 調整前
備抵壞帳借貸餘額
2010/09/01
NTUIB
122
Percentage of A/R
Accounting 2010
 A公司年底應收帳款餘額為$200,000,壞帳率是應收帳款
餘額之4%,則本年底應有之備抵壞帳餘額為$8,000,假
設原有之貸方餘額為$3,000,則本年度應提列之壞帳費用
為$5,000,其分錄如下:
Bad debt expense
5,000
Allowance for doubtful account
5,000
 若備抵壞帳原為借餘$1,500,為了產生應有之備抵壞帳貸
餘$8,000,則本年度應認列壞帳費用$9,500(即$8,000+
$1,500)。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
123
Percentage of A/R
Accounting 2010
2.帳齡分析法(Aging of AR)
 以帳款餘額為基礎估列壞帳,應收帳款明細帳按欠款時
間的長短分類。
 凡欠款時間愈長者,推定其發生壞帳的風險愈大,壞帳
比率會比較高;反之,則較低。
 採用此法,亦應先計算出應有的備抵壞帳餘額,再與原
有備抵壞帳數額相比較,差額即為本年度之壞帳費用。
2010/09/01
NTUIB
124
Percentage of A/R
Accounting 2010
顧客
總數
T.E.A
$600
R.C.B
300
B.A.C
450
O.L.D
700
T.O.E
600
其他
36,950
26,200
5,200
2,450
1,600
1,500
$39,600
$27,000
$5,700
$3,000
$2,000
$1,900
2%
4%
10%
20%
40%
$540
$228
$300
$400
$760
估計壞帳
比率
估計壞帳
總額
2010/09/01
$2,228
尚未逾期
1~30天
31~60天
300
61~90天
90天以上
$200
100
300
200
250
500
200
300
NTUIB
300
125
Percentage of A/R
Accounting 2010
上表為Dart公司的帳齡分析表,該公司估計壞帳
總額為$2,228
若調整前備抵壞帳貸於$528調整金額應為$1,700
($2,228 - $528)
General Journal
Date
2010/09/01
Account Titles
Debit
Credit
Bad Debts Expense
1,700
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
1,700
NTUIB
126
綜合比較
Accounting 2010
 直接沖銷法
 優點:簡單
 缺點:
 收益與費用可能分別列於不同會計期間,不符配合原則。
 高估資產,違反穩健原則。
 GAAP不採行
 備抵法
 銷貨收入百分比法(Percentage of sales)
 優:符合配合原則
 缺:AR未按淨變現值入帳,故資產評價失真
 帳款餘額百分比法(Percentage of receivables)
 優: AR按淨變現值入帳,資產評價較正確
 缺:未”完全”符合配合原則
 這兩種方法都符合GAAP
2010/09/01
NTUIB
127
應收票據 (Note receivable)
Accounting 2010
 「應收票據」(通常是本票, promissory note)是指發
票人(maker, 通常為顧客)承諾在見票(on demand)或
特定日(或特定期間),無條件支付一定金額給本公司
的一種書面承諾。
 約定付款的一方,一般稱之為發票人(Maker)
 接受付款的一方,一般稱之為受款人(Payee)
 種類:
(1)「附息票據」(Interest-bearing note) 是指除票面金額外,另
附加開票日至付款日間之利息的票據;不附息票據則是除票面
金額外,不另附加利息之票據。
(2) 未「附息票據」 (Non-interest-bearing note)
2010/09/01
NTUIB
128
應收票據 (Note receivable)
Accounting 2010
 一般票據的存續期間通常是以月份來表示
 例如:發票日是5月1日且為三個月後到期的票據,則到期日
(maturity date)就是8月1日
 若票據之發票日是在某月份的最後一天,那麼到期日也會
是在未來某一月份的最後一天
 7月31日, 兩個月後=>9月30日
 若票據的存續期間是以天數來表示,就需要計算實際的天
數以求得到期日
 規則:發票日不算,但是到期日需包含在內
 例如:發票日7月17日的60天到期票據,到期日是9月15日
票據期間
7月(31- 17 日)
8月
到期日: 9月
2010/09/01
60
14
31
45
15
NTUIB
129
計算利息的公式
Accounting 2010
票據利息是指年利率
到期日若以天數表示就需除以360(習題)或365天
(bank)
到期日若以月份表示就需除以12個月
票據的條件
利息的計算
面值*利率*期間=利息
$730
18%
120天
$730X18%X120/360 = $ 43.80
$1,000
15%
6個月
$1,000X15%X6/12 = $ 75.00
$2,000
12%
1年
$2,000 X12%X1/1 = $240.00
2010/09/01
NTUIB
130
例題
Accounting 2010
 A公司10月1日賒銷貨品$100,000,顧客交來附息票據一紙,面
值$100,000,利率6%,3個月後到期,其分錄如下:
銷貨時:
應收票據
100,000
銷貨收入
100,000
票據到期:
現
金
應收票據
利息收入
2010/09/01
101,500
100,000
1,500
NTUIB
131
例題
Accounting 2010
 若附息票據之到期日跨越兩個會計期間,則於期末應調整利息
收入入帳。設上例交易日為10月15日,則年終調整分錄如下:
應收利息
1,250
利息收入
1,250*
* $100,000× 6/100 × 3/12 =$1,250
 票據到期時,應作如下分錄:
現
金
101,500
應收票據
100,000
應收利息
1,250
利息收入
250
2010/09/01
NTUIB
132
Balance Sheet Presentation of Receivables
Accounting 2010
短期應收款項應列於資產負債表流動資產中,短
期投資(Short-term investments)之下
應收帳款則需以淨變現價值列示
2010/09/01
NTUIB
133
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Accounting 2010
Presentation
Identify in the balance sheet or in the notes,
each major type of receivable.
B/S
Report short-term receivables as current assets.
Report both gross amount of receivables and
allowance for doubtful account.
I/S
2010/09/01
Report bad debts expense as selling expenses.
Report interest revenue under “Other revenues
and gains.”
NTUIB
134
Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio
Accounting 2010
財務比率常使用來評估公司應收帳款的流動性
(liquidity)
應收帳款週轉率乃是評估應收帳款流動性的比率
,是指一段期間內應收帳款平均收現次數
賒銷淨額
2010/09/01
/
平均應收帳
款淨額
NTUIB
=
應收帳款
週轉率
135
Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio
Accounting 2010
 If Cisco had net credit sales of $18, 915 million for
the year and beginning net accounts receivable
balance of $1,466 million and ending net accounts
receivable balance of $1,105 million:
賒銷淨額
$18,915
2010/09/01
/
平均應收帳
款淨額
=
應收帳款
週轉率
/ ($1,466 + $1.105)/2 = 14.7 times $
NTUIB
136
Statement Presentation and Analysis
Analysis of Receivables:
•
Accounting 2010
平均收帳期間 (Average Collection Period in Days )
20.3 times, or every
18 days (365 / 20.3)
Variant of the accounts receivable turnover ratio is average
collection period in terms of days.
Used to assess effectiveness of credit and collection policies.
The general rule is that the collection period should not exceed
the credit term period (2/10, n/30).
2010/09/01
NTUIB
137
平均收帳期間(Average Collection Period in Days )
Accounting 2010
一年天數
365天
2010/09/01
應收帳款
週轉率
/
/
20.3次
NTUIB
=
平均收帳
天數
= 18 days
138
Download
Related flashcards

Auditing

19 cards

Accounting software

65 cards

Accountants

13 cards

KPMG people

17 cards

Create Flashcards