Ration formulation

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Ration formulation
–
–
–
The goal is to offset the animals requirement with an appropriate
level of feed nutrients.
There are economic and possibly animal welfare consequences when
the ration is „out of balance” in either surplus or deficient direction.
The accuracy of the process depends, how reliable the information
provided for each „side” of the balance are (nutrient requirements of
the animals, nutrient content of feeds).
Ration formulation
–
There are two ways for formulation:
•
•
–
–
hand methods (needs practice, practical experience, slow, does not take into
account the price of feedstuffs)
computer methods (quick, takes into account also the price of feedstuffs, needs
also practical experience)
For ruminants daily rations are prepared (daily ration for cows
producing 20l milk per day)
For monogastric animals compound diets are produced (diets for 3060 kg pigs)
The nutrient content of feeds
– can be measured in a laboratory
– can be found in the same recommendations like to the requirements
In the case of ruminants the following requirement values are used:
– dry matter, NE, crude protein, crude fibre, Ca, P,
In the case of monogastric animals:
– dry matter, DE or ME, crude protein, crude fibre, Ca, P, Lysine,
Methionine + Cystine
Other minerals, vitamins, salt are added in the form of so called premixes
Ration formulation
The requirement of animals depends on the
– species (feedstuffs used for the ruminants and monogastrics are
different)
– form of utilisation (the ration of milking cows contain more forage,
on the other hand beef cattle are fed with rations containing high
amounts of grains)
– age of animals (young animals need more energy, protein, minerals,
vitamins; requirements decline in elder animals)
Requirement values can be determined or found in different
recommendations (National Research Council, NRC; other national
recommendations, like Hungarian Feed Codex, research
publications etc.)
Determination the energy, protein or amino acid
requirements with animal experiments
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
12
12,0
12,512,8 13
13,5
MJ/kg MJ/kg MJ/kg MJ/kg MJ/kg
Requirements of some animal species
Energy
Crude
protein
Ca
P
Beef cattle, live weight:
300 kg, daily growth rate:
800g
26,6 MJ NEm
11,6 MJ NEg
741g
29g
18g
Growing diet for pigs (50
kg)
14MJ DE
170g
6g
5g
Broiler grower diet (3-5
week old chicks)
13, 4 MJ ME
200g
9g
3,5g*
Turkey growing diet (13
week old birds)
13,0 MJ ME
190g
7,5g
3,8g*
* = non phytate, or available P
Energy requirements of beef cattle
Liwe weight, kg
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
44,7
-
Medium frame
Growth kg/day
Maintenance energy requirement, NEm, MJ/day
15,8
19,6
23,2
266
29,8
33 0
360
39,0
41,9
Energy requirement of growth, NEg, MJ/day
0,4
-
-
-
6,1
6,8
7,4
8,0
8,6
9,2
-
0,6
5,0
6,3
74
8,5
9,5
10,5
11,5
12,5
13,4
14,3
-
0,7
6,0
7,4
8,8
10,1
11,3
12,5
13,6
14,7
15,8
16,9
-
0,8
69
8,6
10,2
11,6
13,1
14,4
15,8
17,1
18,3
19,6
-
0,9
7,9
9,8
116
13,2
14,9
16,4
18,0
19,4
20,9
22,3
-
1,0
88
11,0
13,0
14,9
16,7
18,4
20,2
21,8
23,4
25,0
-
1,1
9,8
12,2
14,4
16,5
18,5
20,5
22,4
24,2
26,0
27,8
-
1,2
10,8
13,4
158
18,2
20,4
22,5
246
26,6
28,6
-
1,3
11,8
14,6
17,3
19,8
22,3
24,6
26,9
29,1
-
-
1,4
-
159
18,8
21,5
24,1
26,7
29,2
-
-
-
-
Big frame
Maintenance energy requirement, NEm, MJ/day
Growth kg/day
16,6
20,6
24,3
27,9
31,3
34,6
37,8
40,9
43,9
46,9
49,8
Energy requirement of growth, NEg, MJ/day
0,4
-
-
-
-
0,6
4,5
5,6
0,8
61
0,9
70
1,0
6,5
7,1
7,6
8,1
8,6
6,6
7,5
8,4
9,3
10,2
11,0
11,9
12,7
13,4
7,6
9,0
10,3
8,7
10,2
11,7
11,6
12,8
14,0
15,1
16,3
17,4
18,4
13,2
14,6
15,9
17,2
18,5
19,7
21,0
7,8
9,7
11,5
13,2
14,8
164
179
19,3
20,8
22,2
23,5
1,1
8,7
10,8
12,8
14,6
16,4
18,2
19,8
21,5
23,1
24,6
26,1
1,2
9,6
11,9
140
16 1
18,1
20,0
21,8
23,6
25,4
27,1
28,7
1,3
10,5
13,0
15,3
17,6
197
21,8
23,8
25,8
27,7
29,6
31,4
1,0
11,3
14,1
16,6
19,0
21,4
23 7
258
28,0
300
32,1
-
1,5
12,2
15,2
17,9
20,6
23,1
25,5
27,9
30,2
32,4
-
-
1,6
13,1
16,3
19,3
22,1
248
27,4
29,9
32,4
-
-
1,8
-
18,5
21,9
25,1
28,2
31,2
34,0
-
-
Formulation daily rations for milking cows
Basic ration (the roughage part of the ration, covers the
maintenance requirement of cows and the production of
about 10-12 l milk per day)
Supplementary feed (contains cereals and protein
concentrates, covers the requirement of producing milk
above the basic ration)
Mineral and vitamin premixes are mixed with the
supplementary feed. If no supplementary feed is needed
some grain meal (0,5-1 kg) is used to mix with the
premixes.
Formulation daily rations for milking cows
1. find out the nutrient requirement of the cow or th group of cows
2. find out the feedstuffs available
3. define the ratio of feedstuffs, according to the potential dry
matter intake of cows and the recommended maximum ratios of
feedstuffs
4. NEl and crude protein contents of the ration is calculated and
compared with the requirements
5. Check the Ca and P supply. If necessary use Ca and P
supplements. If both minerals are missing, use the P supplement
first, since it contains also Ca. The final deficiency of Ca can be
supplied with limestone.
6. Check the fibre content of the ration (20±3% of the dry matter
intake)
7. Ruminants can feed about 8-10% green forages, 3-5% silages,
and 0,5-1% hays of their live weight.
Formulation daily ration for 600 kg milking cows, producing 14
litre milk per day, the milk contains 3,6% fat, grazing on good
quality pasture
Requirement
Dry matter (kg) NEl (MJ)
Crude protein
(g)
Ca (g)
P (g)
Maintenance
Milk production
Total
Feedstuffs
sz.a.
Nutrients in 1 kg dry matter
NEl
c. prot. c. fibre Ca
P
(g)
(MJ)
corn silage
(kg)
25
alfalfa hay
5
Total
30
Differences
(g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
Amount
dry
matter
(kg)
Nutrients in the ration
NEl c. prot. c. fibre Ca
P
(MJ) (g)
(g)
(g)
(g)
Maintenance requirements of cows
crude
protein
Weight (kg)
NEl, MJ
Ca
p
g
grazing
450
34,3
good
quality
37,7
500
37,2
40,9
44,6
432
22
17
550
39,9
43,9
47,9
461
24
18
600
42,6
46,9
51,1
489
26
20
650
45,2
49,7
54,2
515
28
21
700
47,8
52,6
57,4
542
30
23
750
50,4
55,4
60,5
567
32
25
stall
medium
quality
41,2
403
19
15
Requirements of production 1 litre milk
milk fat
%
NEl
MJ
milk protein
%
CP
3,0
2,68
2,7
77
3,5
2,87
2,8
82
3,6
2,92
2,9
83
3,7
2,96
3,0
84
3,8
3,00
3,1
85
3,9
3,04
3,2
86
4,0
3,10
3,3
87
4,1
3,13
3,4
88
Ca
p
g
2,8
1,7
Potential dry matter intake of dairy cows, kg
(±1kg)
Live weight (kg)
400
500
600
700
10,0
11,2
12,4
13,6
14,8
16,0
11,5
12,5
14,0
15,5
17,0
18,0
19,0
20,0
13,2
14,4
16,2
18,0
19,2
20,4
21,6
22',8
14,7
16,1
18,2
19,6
21,0
22,4
23,8
25,2
Milk production
(kg)
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
-
Ca and P supplements
Ca
Name
Dry matter
(g/kg)
P
g/kg
Ca:P
Amount needed
for supplying 1 g
P
MCP (monocalcium phosphate)
908
160
220
0,73:1
4,55
DCP (dicalcium phosphate)
980
290
210
1.38:1
4,76
ÁP-17
950
225
171
1,31:1
5,85
ÁP-18
Hostaphos
950
191
187
1,02:1
5,35
950
90
175
0,51:1
5,71
Nutrafosz
I. (cattle )
II. (pig)
950
87
131
0,66:1
7,63
950
184
105
1,75:1
9,52
III. (poultry)
950
170
105
1,62:1
9,52
Phylafor
950
39
121
0,32:1
8,26
Cefkaphos
950
160
227
0,70:1
4,41
Phylafor Super
950
34
180
0,19:1
5,56
Phylafor (sheep)
950
42
122
0,34:1
8,20
Limestone
950
380
-
-
-
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