Segregation and integration in the UK

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Segregation
and
integration in
the UK
Ludi Simpson
Cathie Marsh Centre for
Census and Survey
Research, University of
Manchester
Politics and demography
ASEN conference, LSE
September 29-30 2006
www.ccsr.ac.uk/staff/ludi/race.html
Claims and evidence
• “Whites will soon become a minority in Birmingham and
other major British cities, posing a critical challenge to
social stability, Britain’s race relations watchdog has
warned.
• “The warning comes as government statistics show that
white and ethnic minority communities are becoming
increasingly segregated by growing population
movement and immigration.
• “Phillips will highlight the issue this week at a conference
in Leicester, which the CRE predicts will become a plural
city by 2011, with the others [Birmingham, Oldham and
Bradford] crossing the threshold by 2016.”
Sunday Times, March 19th 2006, David Leppard
Population dynamics, England
• Growth of Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani and
Bangladeshi populations is more through natural
growth (reproduction) than immigration, 1991-2001
Black: natural
change (excess
of births over
deaths).
Caribbean
White
Indian
Chinese
Grey: Net
migration.
Pakistani
Bangladeshi
African
-20%
Source:
Williamson
(2003)
0%
20%
40%
60%
80% 100%
www.ccsr.ac.uk/research/egpd.htm
Oldham and Rochdale, Migration 1991-2001
Natural change 1991-2001
Total persons
Asian settlement 1991
Asian growth 91-01
Small Asian growth
Other areas
5164
2442
795
885
Net migration 1991-2001
Total persons
Asian settlement 1991
Asian growth 91-01
Small Asian growth
Other areas
-4188
-3481
414
-3253
Pak’ni
B’shi
Other
77
43
3
14
3410
2160
233
168
2527
583
122
46
314
448
126
269
White Black Indian
Pak’ni
B’shi
Other
-211
1743
508
168
741
1037
258
53
392
555
185
270
White Black Indian
-1158
-812
302
382
-4454
-6599
-494
-3640
-3
17
9
5
-300
-164
-54
-105
-358
-56
9
-4
www.ccsr.ac.uk/research/migseg/index.html
Mixing, growth and migration
More mixed
wards?
Natural growth
or immigration?
(10% each White
and Others)
(Non-White in one
year)
Coloured flight?
(Net migration in UK
from the least White
ward in one year)
1991
2001
Births
Immig
White
Other
18
27
1,411
718
786 out
1,320 out
Coventry
6
11
208
103
17 out
346 out
Dudley
4
5
67
38
63 out
40 out
10
18
137
67
78 out
84 out
Stoke-on-Trent UA
1
3
55
91
476 in
7 out
Telford & Wrekin UA
2
4
16
12
43 in
11 out
Walsall
7
8
180
52
99 out
114 out
13
17
100
66
3 in
139 out
5
4
41
21
58 out
8 out
Birmingham
Sandwell
Wolverhampton
East Staffs
www.ccsr.ac.uk->working papers-> “Ghettos of the mind…”
Indices of segregation
Index of dissimilarity
(evenness)
Index of isolation
(exposure)
1991
2001
1991
2001
White
61.4
58.8
95.3
93.5
Caribbean
68.9
67
7.6
7.3
African
71.1
70.6
4.3
8.2
Indian
65.3
62.1
15.6
15.5
Pakistani
75.1
71.7
13.9
17.4
Bangladeshi
74.2
71.6
10.9
13.8
Chinese
42.2
41.3
0.8
1.2
N of polarised enclaves
8
8
Indices of movement and diversity
Movement
Migration Dispersal Index (net %
moving from Non-White areas)
Migration Dispersal Index (net %
moving from White areas)
Standardised Reciprocal Diversity
Index
2001
White
2.0
All others
1.4
White
-0.1
All others
-1.1
Diversity
% Mixed areas (with 10% each of
White and other)
1991
1991
2001
9
12
1.07
1.78
http://asp.ccsr.ac.uk/dwp
Those who move out of inner areas are better off than
those who stay, but big inequalities remain
Male
unemployment
rate at age 25
and older,
2001 Census.
Ethnic group
and ethnic
composition
England
& Wales
Diverse
areas:
less
than
50%
White
Mixed
areas:
between
50%
and
87%
White
Unmixed
areas:
more
than
87%
White
White Briton
5%
8%
5%
4%
ALL PEOPLE
Chinese
Indian
Pakistani
Caribbean
African
5%
5%
5%
12%
13%
14%
10%
8%
7%
14%
16%
16%
6%
5%
5%
12%
13%
14%
4%
4%
3%
9%
8%
8%
Bangladeshi
16%
21%
13%
7%
Other research
• Greater London Authority Nov 05
– Simpson’s Diversity Index: greater diversity over time
– Polarised enclaves: fewer in 2001 than 1991
– Ghettos: none
• Poulsen (Johnston and Forrest) Sept 05
– Index of isolation: increased
– Ghettos: none
• Phillips, survey-based Society and Space 05
– Dispersal in fact and in aspirations of young Asian families
• Dorling and Rees 2002, and many others
– Social geography becoming more polarised
• Rees, 2005 for Joseph Rowntree Foundation
What’s round the corner?
and what can be done about it?
• More Black and Asian areas, with probably
higher proportions of Black and Asian residents
– Indices of ‘isolation’ will go up for Asian populations
– Not policy sensitive: we don’t ask people not to have
children
• More dispersal to other areas: diversity and
mixing; a residential mosaic
– Increase labour market equality and economic
prosperity
– Remove barriers in the housing market
– The safety and comfort of potential new areas outside
settlement areas
What’s round the corner?
and what can be done about it?
• Fear
– at top and bottom
• Community cohesion / CRE policies for
equality, interaction and participation
• View clusters as a means to integration,
not its antithesis
• Reduce inflammatory views of Black areas
• New thinking on the meaning of integration
and segregation
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