Biology 30
The Endocrine System
Comparison of Nervous System
and Endocrine System
Nervous System
Endocrine System
Produces
neurotransmitters
Produces
hormones
Direct
cell to cell
communication
Hormones travel
through blood to their
target
Fast acting
Slow acting
Lasts a short while
Long lasting
2
General Things to Know
 Endocrine = Hormone System
 Hormones are chemicals produced in
minute amounts
 All hormones in body together weigh less
than 5 ounces.
3
General Things to Know
 Control the slow processes in our bodies
 Rate of growth
 Metabolism
 Development before birth
 Pregnancy, birth process, lactation
 Initiation of puberty & sexual maturity
 Storing & breakdown of food
 Maintaining water & mineral levels
4
General Things to Know

Hormones are chemical messengers




Produced in a gland
Travel through the blood stream
Act on a “target” cell.
Hormones are created in glands called
ENDOCRINE glands (“ductless glands”)

Because the glands secrete into the blood
stream, not into a body cavity (exocrine).
5
Types of Hormones
1. Local Hormones
•
•
•
•
Not typical hormones
Act immediately on area near secretion
Action is local and rapid
Example = histamines
 Released by tissues when affected by a
foreign substance… pollen…
 Increases blood flow and fluid leaks into
tissues
 Inflammation, redness, swelling
6
Types of Hormones
2. Circulating Hormones
•
•
•
•
•
Typical
Produced by endocrine glands
Travel through blood
To target cell
Combine with receptor on or in the target
cell
 Receptor site is either on the membrane or in
cytoplasm
 Initiates a change in the target cell
7
Chemical Structure of Hormones
We are concerned with 2 types
1. Protein or Peptide Hormones
•
•
•
•
Made up of peptide chains or long proteins
Water soluble / lipid insoluble
Cannot cross phospholipid bilayer
Includes hormones from
1. Hypothalamus
2. Pituitary
3. Pancreas
8
Chemical Structure of Hormones
2. Steroid Hormones
•
•
•
•
Chemically related to cholesterol
Water insoluble / lipid soluble
Can pass right through the cell membrane
Includes
 Sex hormones
 Thyroxin
 Hormones from the adrenal cortex
9
Anatomy of the
Endocrine System
Its time for a sensational
multi-media event!
Lipid Soluble Hormone
Lipid Insoluble Hormone
Anatomy of the Endocrine System
Assignment
 Identify the following endocrine glands
on a diagram of a human and identify
the major hormones produced by that
gland:
Anterior pituitary
Posterior pituitary
Pineal Gland
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Thymus
Stomach
Duodenum
Adrenal Glands
Pancreas
Islets of Langerhans
Gonads
14
Let’s zoom in on the head.
Anatomy of the Endocrine System
 Hypothalamus

hormones produced here are secreted
into the blood through the posterior
pituitary.
20
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
22
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Pituitary)
23
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Oxytocin
Pituitary)
24
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Oxytocin
Pituitary)
Target
Effect
Uterus,
Mammary
25
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Hypothalamus
Oxytocin
(Posterior
Pituitary)
Target
Effect
Uterus,
Mammary
Uterine
contraction,
milk
secretion
26
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Oxytocin
Pituitary)
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Pituitary)
Target
Effect
Uterus,
Mammary
Uterine
contraction,
milk
secretion
27
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Oxytocin
Pituitary)
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Pituitary)
Target
Effect
Uterus,
Mammary
Uterine
contraction,
milk
secretion
ADH
28
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Oxytocin
Pituitary)
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Pituitary)
ADH
Target
Effect
Uterus,
Mammary
Uterine
contraction,
milk
secretion
Kidney
29
Source = Hypothalamus
Posterior
Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Oxytocin
Pituitary)
Hypothalamus
(Posterior
Pituitary)
ADH
Target
Effect
Uterus,
Mammary
Uterine
contraction,
milk
secretion
Kidney
Water
reabsorption
30
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Ant. Pituitary
31
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant. Pituitary
Growth
Hormone
Target
Effect
(somatotropin)
33
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Ant. Pituitary
Growth
Hormone
General
Effect
(somatotropin)
34
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant. Pituitary
Growth
Hormone
(somatotropin)
Target
Effect
General
Stimulates
body growth
35
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant. Pituitary
Growth
Hormone
(somatotropin)
Target
Effect
General
Stimulates
body growth
Ant. Pituitary
36
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant. Pituitary
Growth
Hormone
(somatotropin)
Ant. Pituitary
Target
Effect
General
Stimulates
body growth
Thyroid
Stimulating
Hormone
37
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant. Pituitary
Growth
Hormone
Target
Effect
General
Stimulates
body growth
(somatotropin)
Ant. Pituitary
Thyroid
Stimulating
Hormone
Thyroid
38
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant. Pituitary
Growth
Hormone
Target
Effect
General
Stimulates
body growth
Thyroid
Stimulates
release of
thyroxine
from thyroid
(somatotropin)
Ant. Pituitary
Thyroid
Stimulating
Hormone
39
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Ant.
Pituitary
40
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant.
Pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
ACTH
Target
Effect
41
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Ant.
Pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
ACTH
Adrenal
Cortex
Effect
42
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant.
Pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
ACTH
Target
Effect
Adrenal
Cortex
Stimulates
“Stress”
Hormone
Release
43
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Ant.
Pituitary
Hormone
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
ACTH
Target
Effect
Adrenal
Cortex
Stimulates
“Stress”
Hormone
Release
Cortisol
Ant.
Pituitary
44
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant.
Pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
ACTH
Ant.
Pituitary
Prolactin
Target
Effect
Adrenal
Cortex
Stimulates
“Stress”
Hormone
Release
Cortisol
45
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Ant.
Pituitary
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
ACTH
Adrenal
Cortex
Stimulates
“Stress”
Hormone
Release
Cortisol
Ant.
Pituitary
Prolactin
Mammary
46
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Ant.
Pituitary
Ant.
Pituitary
Hormone
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone
ACTH
Prolactin
Target
Effect
Adrenal
Cortex
Stimulates
“Stress”
Hormone
Release
Cortisol
Milk
Mammary production &
Secretion
47
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Ant.
Pituitary
48
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant.
Pituitary
Follicle
Stimulating
Hormone
FSH
Target
Effect
49
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Ant.
Pituitary
Follicle
Stimulating
Hormone
FSH
Ovary &
Testes
Effect
50
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Ant.
Pituitary
Hormone
Follicle
Stimulating
Hormone
FSH
Target
Effect
Ovary &
Testes
Growth of
ovarian
follicle,
Production of
Sperm
51
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Ant.
Pituitary
Hormone
Follicle
Stimulating
Hormone
FSH
Target
Effect
Ovary &
Testes
Growth of
ovarian
follicle,
Production of
Sperm
Ant.
Pituitary
52
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant.
Pituitary
Follicle
Stimulating
Hormone
FSH
Ant.
Pituitary
Luteinizing
Hormone
LH
Target
Effect
Ovary &
Testes
Growth of
ovarian
follicle,
Production of
Sperm
53
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Ant.
Pituitary
Follicle
Stimulating
Hormone
FSH
Ovary &
Testes
Growth of
ovarian
follicle,
Production of
Sperm
Ant.
Pituitary
Luteinizing
Hormone
LH
Ovary &
Testes
54
Source = Anterior Pituitary
Source
Hormone
Ant.
Pituitary
Follicle
Stimulating
Hormone
FSH
Ant.
Pituitary
Luteinizing
Hormone
LH
Target
Effect
Ovary &
Testes
Growth of
ovarian
follicle,
Production of
Sperm
Ovary &
Testes
Stimulates
ovulation,
production of
testosterone
55
Source = Pineal Gland
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Pineal
Gland
58
Source = Pineal Gland
Source
Hormone
Pineal
Gland
Melatonin
Target
Effect
59
Source = Pineal Gland
Source
Hormone
Target
Pineal
Gland
Melatonin
General
Effect
60
Source = Pineal Gland
Source
Pineal
Gland
Hormone
Melatonin
Target
Effect
General
Biorhythms
(sleep vs. wake)
(summer vs. winter)
Length of days
61
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Thyroid
Gland
63
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Hormone
Thyroid
Gland
Thyroxin
Target
Effect
64
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Hormone
Target
Thyroid
Gland
Thyroxin
General
Effect
65
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Thyroid
Gland
Hormone
Thyroxin
Target
Effect
General
Stimulates
metabolism,
growth,
development
66
67
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Thyroid
Gland
68
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Hormone
Thyroid
Gland
Calcitonin
Target
Effect
69
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Hormone
Target
Thyroid
Gland
Calcitonin
Bone
Effect
70
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Thyroid
Gland
Hormone
Calcitonin
Target
Effect
Bone
Lowers calcium
levels by
inhibiting bone
breakdown
71
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Thyroid
Gland
Hormone
Calcitonin
Target
Effect
Bone
Lowers calcium
levels by
inhibiting bone
breakdown
Parathyroid
Gland
72
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Thyroid
Gland
Hormone
Calcitonin
Target
Effect
Bone
Lowers calcium
levels by
inhibiting bone
breakdown
Parathyroid Parathyroid
Gland
Hormone
73
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Thyroid
Gland
Hormone
Calcitonin
Parathyroid Parathyroid
Gland
Hormone
Target
Effect
Bone
Lowers calcium
levels by
inhibiting bone
breakdown
Bone
74
Source = Thyroid Gland
Source
Thyroid
Gland
Hormone
Calcitonin
Parathyroid Parathyroid
Gland
Hormone
Target
Effect
Bone
Lowers calcium
levels by
inhibiting bone
breakdown
Bone
Raises calcium
levels by
stimulating bone
breakdown
75
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Adrenal
Cortex
78
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Adrenal
Cortex
Aldosterone
Target
Effect
79
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Target
Adrenal
Cortex
Aldosterone
Kidney
Effect
80
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Cortex
Hormone
Aldosterone
Target
Effect
Reabsorbs
Kidney
sodium and water
81
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Cortex
Hormone
Aldosterone
Target
Effect
Reabsorbs
Kidney
sodium and water
Adrenal
Cortex
82
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Adrenal
Cortex
Aldosterone
Adrenal
Cortex
Cortisol
Target
Effect
Reabsorbs
Kidney
sodium and water
83
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Adrenal
Cortex
Aldosterone
Adrenal
Cortex
Cortisol
Target
Effect
Reabsorbs
Kidney
sodium and water
General
84
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Cortex
Adrenal
Cortex
Hormone
Target
Effect
Aldosterone
Reabsorbs
Kidney
sodium and water
Cortisol
Stimulates
General Glucose Release
Long term stress
85
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Adrenal
Medulla
86
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Adrenal
Medulla
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Target
Effect
88
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Hormone
Target
Adrenal
Medulla
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Liver &
Muscle
Effect
89
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Medulla
Hormone
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Target
Effect
Stimulates
Liver & Glucose release
Muscle
Short term stress
90
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Medulla
Hormone
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Target
Effect
Stimulates
Liver & Glucose release
Muscle
Short term stress
Adrenal
Medulla
91
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Medulla
Hormone
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Target
Effect
Stimulates
Liver & Glucose release
Muscle
Short term stress
Adrenal Norepinephrine
Medulla (noradrenalin)
92
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Medulla
Hormone
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Target
Effect
Stimulates
Liver & Glucose release
Muscle
Short term stress
Adrenal Norepinephrine General
Medulla (noradrenalin)
Heart
93
Source = Adrenal Glands
Source
Adrenal
Medulla
Hormone
Epinephrine
(Adrenalin)
Target
Effect
Stimulates
Liver & Glucose release
Muscle
Short term stress
Adrenal Norepinephrine General
Medulla (noradrenalin)
Heart
Constrict Blood
Vessels
Increase Heart
Rate
94
Source = Pancreas
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
96
Source = Pancreas
Source
Hormone
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Insulin
Target
Effect
97
Source = Pancreas
Source
Hormone
Target
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Insulin
General
Effect
98
Source = Pancreas
Source
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Hormone
Insulin
Target
Effect
Lowers blood
glucose levels
General Stimulates uptake
of glucose into
cells
99
Source = Pancreas
Source
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Pancreas
Alpha Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Hormone
Insulin
Target
Effect
Lowers blood
glucose levels
General Stimulates uptake
of glucose into
cells
100
Source = Pancreas
Source
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Hormone
Insulin
Pancreas
Alpha Cells
Glucagon
of Islets of
Langerhans
Target
Effect
Lowers blood
glucose levels
General Stimulates uptake
of glucose into
cells
101
Source = Pancreas
Source
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Hormone
Insulin
Pancreas
Alpha Cells
Glucagon
of Islets of
Langerhans
Target
Effect
Lowers blood
glucose levels
General Stimulates uptake
of glucose into
cells
Liver &
Fatty
Tissue
102
Source = Pancreas
Source
Pancreas
Beta Cells
of Islets of
Langerhans
Hormone
Insulin
Pancreas
Alpha Cells
Glucagon
of Islets of
Langerhans
Target
Effect
Lowers blood
glucose levels
General Stimulates uptake
of glucose into
cells
Raises blood
Liver & glucose levels by
Fatty stimulating liver to
Tissue convert glycogen
back into glucose
103
Source = Ovary
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Ovary
104
Source = Ovary
Source
Hormone
Ovary
Estrogen
Target
Effect
106
Source = Ovary
Source
Ovary
Hormone
Target
Estrogen
General
Uterus
Effect
107
Source = Ovary
Source
Ovary
Hormone
Estrogen
Target
Effect
Develop & Maintain
secondary female
General
characteristics
Uterus
Growth of uterine
lining
108
Source = Ovary
Source
Ovary
Hormone
Estrogen
Target
Effect
Develop & Maintain
secondary female
General
characteristics
Uterus
Growth of uterine
lining
Ovary
109
Source = Ovary
Source
Ovary
Hormone
Estrogen
Target
Effect
Develop & Maintain
secondary female
General
characteristics
Uterus
Growth of uterine
lining
Ovary Progesterone
110
Source = Ovary
Source
Ovary
Hormone
Estrogen
Target
Effect
Develop & Maintain
secondary female
General
characteristics
Uterus
Growth of uterine
lining
Ovary Progesterone Uterus
111
Source = Ovary
Source
Ovary
Hormone
Estrogen
Target
Effect
Develop & Maintain
secondary female
General
characteristics
Uterus
Growth of uterine
lining
Promotes continued
Ovary Progesterone Uterus
growth of uterine
lining
112
Source = Testes
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Testes
113
Source = Testes
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
Testes Testosterone
115
Source = Testes
Source
Hormone
Target
Effect
General &
ReprodTestes Testosterone
uctive
Structures
116
Source = Testes
Source
Hormone
Target
General &
ReprodTestes Testosterone
uctive
Structures
Effect
Develop &
Maintain
secondary male
characteristics
Promotes
spermatogenesis
117
Now that you know what
they are…
Let’s find out how and when
they are produced and how the
system can be shut off when
things are fine.
Hormones & Feedback
 Hormone levels are regulated through a
process called negative feedback
 When the brain detects an inappropriate level
of a certain hormone, it will do things to fix the
problem.
 When the problem is solved, the brain stops
trying to fix it.
 Let’s look at an example.
119
Hormones & Feedback
 When insufficient levels of thyroxin in
body…
1. the pituitary releases TSH
2. Thyroid then produces Thyroxin
3. Soon thyroxin levels are high enough for
pituitary to stop releasing TSH.
4. As a result, thyroxin release stops.
120
Hormones & Feedback
Hormones & Feedback
Hormones & Feedback
Hormones & Feedback
Hormones & Feedback
A Diploma Exam Diagram
126
Hormonal Control Assignment

Using your textbook and class notes,
describe each the following disorders by
1. indicating the symptoms
2. identifying the hormones involved
3. identifying if this hormone is in hypersecretion or
hyposecretion.
1.
2.
3.
4.
hypothyroidism
hyperthyroidism
goiter
diabetes mellitus
5. gigantism
6. dwarfism
7. acromegaly
127
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