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Chapter21 •Credit and Inventory Management McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 21 – Index of Sample Problems • • • • • • • • • • Slide # 02 - 03 Slide # 04 - 06 Slide # 07 - 09 Slide # 10 - 11 Slide # 12 - 13 Slide # 14 - 15 Slide # 16 - 21 Slide # 22 - 25 Slide # 26 - 27 Slide # 28 - 30 Accounts receivable Discount terms Credit policy switch Switch break-even point One-time sale Repeat sale Economic order quantity (EOQ) One-shot approach Accounts receivable approach Discounts and default risk 2: Accounts receivable Over the past five years, your firm has had average daily sales of $26,780. The average collection period is 34 days. What is the average accounts receivable balance you would expect to find if you analyzed the monthly balance sheets of your firm? 3: Accounts receivable Averageaccountsreceivable Averagedaily sales Averagecollectionperiod $26,780 34 $910,520 4: Discount terms Today, June 10, you purchased $5,000 worth of materials from one of your suppliers. The terms of the sale are 3/15, net 45. What is the discounted price? By what day do you have to pay to receive the discount? What is the effective annual rate of the discount? 5: Discount terms Discountedprice $5,000 (1- .03) $5,000 .97 $4,850 Final day for discount June 10 15 days June 25 6: Discount terms Daysin period 45 - 15 30 Periods per year 365 12.1667 30 .03 $5,000 Interestratefor 30 days (1- .03) $5,000 $150 $4,850 .03093 Effectiveannualrate (1 .03093)12.1667 1 .44862 44.86% 7: Credit policy switch Currently, your firm has a cash only policy. Under this policy, your monthly sales are 70 units at a selling price of $50 a unit. The variable cost is $34 a unit. You are trying to decide if you want to change your credit policy to net 30. You estimate that if you switch your credit policy that your monthly sales will increase to 90 units. The applicable monthly interest rate is .5%. What is the incremental cash inflow from the proposed switch in your credit policy? What is the net present value of the proposed switch? 8: Credit policy switch Incrementa l cash inflow (P - v)(Q'-Q) ($50 $34)(90 70) $16 20 $320 9: Credit policy switch (P v)(Q'Q) NP V [(P Q v(Q'Q)] R ($50 $34) (90 70) [($50 70) $34 (90 70)] .005 $320 [$3500 $680] .005 $4,180 $64,000 $59,820 10: Switch break-even point Your brother owns a company that also has a cash only credit policy. He, too, is considering switching to a net 30 credit policy. His current sales per month are 85 units at an average selling price of $60 a unit. His variable cost is $42 a unit. His applicable monthly interest rate is 1.5%. Your brother wants to know how many additional units he would have to sell to break-even on this proposed credit policy switch. What should you tell him? 11: Switch break-even point Pv Q'Q P Q v R $60 $42 Q'85 ($60 85) $42 .015 Q'85 $5,100 ($1,200 $42) Q'85 $5,100 $1,158 Q'85 4.404 12: One-time sale A customer just walked into your store and wants to buy some electronics costing $89. The customer states that he is from out of town and is just passing through on an extended vacation. Thus, you know that this is a one-time sale. Your variable cost for this merchandise is $50 and your relevant interest rate is 1.5% per month. Since this customer had not planned on making this purchase, he does not have sufficient funds with him to pay for it and thus asks for credit for one month until he arrives back home. Should you grant credit to this customer if you feel there is a 30% chance that he will default? 13: One-time sale P NPV v (1 ) 1 R $50 (1 .30) $89 1 .015 $50 (.7 $87.68) $50 $61.38 $11.38 14: Repeat sale A new customer just walked into your store. She says that she is new to the area and is out checking out the various retail stores to decide where she will shop in the future. She’s looking at some merchandise costing $250 but states that she won’t have that much money until next month. You know that your variable cost in the item is $180 and that your monthly interest rate is 1.7%. Should you offer her credit for one month if you feel that the chance of default is 10%? 15: Repeat sale Pv NP V v (1 ) R $250 $180 $180 (1 .10) .017 $180 (.90 $4,117.647) $180 $3,705.88 $3,525.88 16: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) You have just accepted a job as the purchasing manager for a local retailer. You have identified one key item that you believe needs close monitoring. You’ve been told that your store sells 31,200 units of this item each year. The fixed costs per order are $75. The carrying cost per unit is $1.10. What is the economic order quantity? 17: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) EOQ 2T F CC 2 31,200 $75 $1.10 $4,680,000 $1.10 4,254,545.46 2,062.65 unit s 18: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) You sell 12,000 units of a product each year at an average price of $15 each. Your variable cost per unit is $9. Your carrying cost per unit is $.60. You allow your inventory of this product to drop to zero before restocking. Each order you place is for 2,500 units. The fixed cost per order is $40. What is your annual total carrying cost? What is your annual total restocking cost? What is the EOQ? 19: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) T otalcarryingcost Averageinventory Carryingcost per unit 2,500 0 $.60 2 1,250 $.60 $750 12,000 $40 2,500 4.8 $40 $192.00 T otalrestockingcost 20: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) EOQ 2T F CC 2 12,000 $40 $.60 $960,000 $.60 1,600,000 1,264.91 21: Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) T ot alcarryingcost Averageinvent ory Carryingcost per unit 1,264.91 0 $.60 2 632.455 $.60 $379.47 12,000 $40 1,264.91 9.48684 $40 $379.47 T otalrestockingcost 22: One-shot approach Your firm currently sells 200 units each month at a price of $24 each. The variable cost per unit is $14 and the monthly interest rate is 1.5%. If you switch your credit policy from cash only to net 30, you think you can increase your sales to 215 units a month. Use the one-shot approach to compute the NPV of the switch. 23: One-shot approach Current net income (P - v) Q ($24- $14) 200 $2,000 24: One-shot approach Proposed income P Q' $24 215 $5,160 Proposedcost v Q' $14 215 $3,010 $5,160 P roposedNP V - $3,010 1 .015 $3,010 $5,083.74 $2,073.74 25: One-shot approach Mont hlygain fromswit ch $2,073.74- $2,000 $73.74 NPV of switch $73.74 $73.74 .015 $4,989.74 $4,990 26: Accounts receivable approach Your firm currently sells 200 units each month at a price of $24 each. The variable cost per unit is $14 and the monthly interest rate is 1.5%. If you switch your credit policy from cash only to net 30, you think you can increase your sales to 215 units a month. Use the accounts receivables approach to compute the NPV of the switch. 27: Accounts receivable approach (P v)(Q'Q) {[ P Q v(Q'Q)] R} R [($24 $14) (215 200)] {[($24 200) $14 (215 200)] .015} .015 [$1015] {[$4,800 $210] .015} .015 $150 $75.15 .015 $74.85 .015 $4,990 PV 28: Discounts and default risk Currently, you sell 50 units per period at $22.50 a unit. You are considering implementing a net 30 credit policy along with increasing your credit price to $24. If you make this change, you expect that your sales will remain at their current level. You also expect all of your customers to take advantage of the credit period and that 2% of them will default. The applicable monthly interest rate is 1.5%. What is the net present value of this proposed credit policy? What is the break-even default rate? 29: Discounts and default risk P' P P' $24.00 $22.50 $24.00 .0625 6.25% d d NP V P Q P' Q R ($22.50 50) ($24 50) $1,125 $3,400 $2,275 .0625 .02 .015 30: Discounts and default risk d R (1 d ) .0625 .015 (1 .0625) .0625 .0141 .0484 4.84% Chapter21 •End of Chapter 21 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.