Elements and the Periodic Table

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Elements and the Periodic Table
Table of Contents
Introduction to Atoms
Organizing the Elements
Metals
Nonmetals and Metalloids
Elements From Stardust
Elements and the Periodic Table
Introduction to Atoms Activities
Size of atom- Cut the paper IN HALF as many times as you can until
the paper is too small to cut. Note that you will only be cutting half of
the piece of paper from before in half each time.
An Analogy to Discovering Atoms Using Indirect ObservationsObtain a few ob-scertainers and listen to the BB roll around inside
and determine the shape inside. Choose from the 12 shapes on the
white board. Write the predicted shape and container number in
your lab notebook until you have all 12.
Elements and the Periodic Table
Learning Objectives
1. Describe the structure of atoms.
• Location of protons, neutrons, & electrons
• Charges of protons, neutrons, & electrons
• Relative mass of protons, neutrons, & electrons
2. Describe elements in terms of their atoms.
3. Explain how models are useful for studying atoms.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Introduction to Atoms
Models of Atoms
For over two centuries, scientists have created models of
atoms in an effort to understand why matter behaves as it
does. As scientists have learned more, the model of the atom
has changed, since atoms are so small that they cannot
be observed directly.
Carbon atom
Elements and the Periodic Table
Atomic Theory and Models
Dalton thought that atoms were like smooth, hard spheres
that could not be broken into smaller pieces.
Elements and the Periodic Table
Atomic Theory and Models
Thomson suggested that atoms had negatively charged
electrons embedded in a positive sphere.
Elements and the Periodic Table
Atomic Theory and Models
Rutherford was surprised that a few particles were deflected
strongly. This led him to propose an atomic model with a
positively charged nucleus.
Elements and the Periodic Table
Atomic Theory and Models
Neils Bohr suggested that the electrons orbited around the
nucleus in certain energy levels called shells. He stated that
atoms absorb or give off energy when electrons move from
one shell to another.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Introduction to Atoms
Structure of an Atom
A carbon atom (and all atoms but hydrogen atoms) consist
of protons and neutrons in a nucleus that is surrounded
by a cloud-like region of electrons.
Carbon atom
Elements and the Periodic Table
All elements (and all matter) are made up of
extremely small
A. nuclei
B. atoms
C. Large particles
Elements and the Periodic Table
The center of an atom is called the
A.
B.
C.
D.
protons
nucleus
neutrons
electrons
Elements and the Periodic Table
The nucleus of almost every atom consists of
A.
B.
C.
D.
Protons and electrons
Just neutrons
Protons and neutrons
Just protons
Elements and the Periodic Table
The subatomic particles that move around the
nucleus quickly are called
A.
B.
C.
D.
electrons
neutrons
protons
quarks
Elements and the Periodic Table
Which of the following correctly describes each
subatomic particle in terms of its charge?
A. Protons (0 or no charge), Neutrons (0 or no charge),
Electrons (-)
B. Protons (+), Neutrons (-), Electrons (0 or no charge)
C. Protons (-), Neutrons (+), Electrons (0 or no charge)
D. Protons (+), Neutrons (0 or no charge), Electrons (-)
Elements and the Periodic Table
What is the overall electrical charge of an atom with
12 protons and 10 electrons
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
-2
+2
0
+12
-10
Elements and the Periodic Table
Atoms are mostly
A.
B.
C.
D.
Protons and neutrons
Empty space
Electrons
Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons
Elements and the Periodic Table
Learning Objective
Describe elements in terms of their atoms.
– Number of protons, neutrons, & electrons
– Overall charge of the atom
– Atomic mass or the Atom’s Mass Number
– Atomic Number & Identity
Elements and the Periodic Table
Atomic Easter Egg Hunt Experiment
Goal- Determine the number of protons (atomic number), number of neutrons,
atomic mass, and identity of the nucleus of 5 different atoms for 5 different elements.
Background (Periodic Table on page 84 and 85 in your textbook):
Orange BB’s = protons and Green BB’s = neutrons
• Number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic mass (because protons and
neutrons are 1 mass unit each).
• Number of protons = atomic number (found above the element’s symbol in the
center for the table in your book).
Color(s)
Green
Orange
Yellow
Purple A
Purple B
# of
protons
# of
neutrons
Atomic
Mass
Atomic
Number
Identity
Elements and the Periodic Table - Introduction to Atoms
Atoms, Elements, & Isotopes
• Atomic Number determines the identity which equals the number of
protons. The number of neutrons + the number of protons equals the mass
number because each have a mass of 1 atomic mass unit.
• Atoms of all isotopes of carbon contain six protons, but they differ in the
number of neutrons.
• Carbon-12 is the most common form of carbon, where the 12 is the mass
number. Examine the symbols below. (6 = atomic number = # of protons; 12,
13, and 14 = atomic mass = # of protons + # of neutrons).
•Notice that all of the isotopes (and atoms) are neutral (same # of protons and
electrons).
Elements and the Periodic Table
Atoms & Elements Flow Chart
He-4
Identity
Find on Periodic Table
Find Atomic number above symbol
Atomic Number = # of protons
# of electrons = # of protons for
neutral atoms
Atomic Mass
Mass = # of protons + # of
neutrons (both 1 mass unit
each)
Atomic Mass MINUS the
# of protons = # of
neutrons
Elements and the Periodic Table
Practice Problems
1. For a neutral Ne-22 atom, determine the…
a) Identity
b) Atomic Mass
c) Atomic Number
d) # of p+
e) # of n0
f) # of e2. For a neutral F-19 atom, determine a-f from above.
Elements and the Periodic Table
The atomic number of an element is the same as the
A. Number of protons & neutrons in the nucleus of that
atom.
B. Number of protons in the nucleus of that atom.
C. Number of neutrons in the nucleus of that atom.
D. Number of electrons in the nucleus of that atom.
Elements and the Periodic Table
The atomic number determines the __________ of
an atom.
A.
B.
C.
D.
identity
mass
Number of neutrons
Number of subatomic particles
Elements and the Periodic Table
Protons and neutrons are both
A.
B.
C.
D.
2 atomic mass units each.
0 atomic mass units each.
1 atomic mass unit each.
0.5 atomic mass units each.
Elements and the Periodic Table
What 2 subatomic particles make up most of the
mass of an atom?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Protons and neutrons.
Protons and electrons.
Just neutrons.
Neutrons and electrons.
Elements and the Periodic Table
For a Nitrogen-14 atom, what does the 14
represent?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Atomic number of proton number
Mass number or atomic mass
Atomic particle number
The atom’s identity
Elements and the Periodic Table
Determine the number of protons for a hydrogen-3
atom.
A.
B.
C.
D.
1
2
3
0
Elements and the Periodic Table
Determine the number of neutrons for a hydrogen-3
atom.
A.
B.
C.
D.
1
2
3
0
Elements and the Periodic Table
Determine the number of electrons for a neutral
hydrogen-3 atom. Provide the overall charge of the
atom too.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
1 electron; No charge
1 electron; -1
2 electrons; -1
3 electrons; No charge
1 electron; +1
Elements and the Periodic Table
Practice Problems
1.
Determine the atomic number and the atomic mass for an atom that has 8
protons and 8 neutrons.
2.
What is the identity of this atom?
3.
Suppose an atom has 6 protons and 8 neutrons, what is the atomic number
and the identity of this atom?
4.
What is the name given to the type of atom in the question above and
WHY? Hint: Look at the number of protons and neutrons and think about the
term for these types of atoms we covered yesterday.
5.
Chlorine-37 is an isotope of chlorine. How many protons, neutrons, and
electrons does it have?
6.
What is Chlorine-37's atomic number?
7.
Potassium-40 is a radioactive isotope of potassium (a very small amount
can be found in bananas but it doesn’t harm you). How many protons,
neutrons, and electrons does potassium-40 have?
8.
What is Potassium-40’s atomic number?
Elements and the Periodic Table
Practice Problem Answers
1.
8 (Atomic Number), 16 (Atomic Mass)
2.
Oxygen-16
3.
6 (Atomic Number), Carbon-14
4.
Isotope- Same # of protons, but a different number of neutrons
5.
Chlorine-37: 17 protons (Atomic #), 20 neutrons (Mass – Atomic #),
17 electrons (Same as # of protons b/c it’s neutral)
6.
Chlorine-37: Atomic Number = 17
7.
Potassium-40: 19 protons (Atomic #), 21 neutrons (Mass - # of
protons), 19 electrons (same as # of protons b/c it’s neutral)
8.
K-40: Atomic Number = 19
Elements and the Periodic Table
Noggin Knockers Quiz (13 points- 1 pt. per part)
1. Isotopes
2. a-f (center) and 3. a-f (bottom right)
a) Potassium
b) 19
c) 19
d) 19
e) 39
f) 20
a) Oxygen
b) 8
c) 8
d) 8
e) 18
f) 10
Elements and the Periodic Table
Learning Objectives
1. Explain how Mendeleev discovered the pattern that led to
the periodic table.
2. Describe the data about elements that are found in
the periodic table.
3. Describe how the organization of the periodic table is
used to predict the properties of elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Organizing the Elements
Finding Data on Elements
Each square of the periodic
table includes an element’s
atomic number, chemical
symbol, name, and average
atomic mass. The atomic
mass contains a decimal
because it is an average of
all of the isotopes that
occur in the real world.
Name of
Isotope
Mass (amu)
%
Abundance
Chlorine-35
35
75.78%
Chlorine-37
37
24.22%
Weighted
Average
35.5 (on
periodic table)
Rounding the average
atomic mass will almost
always give you the mass of
the most common isotope
of that element.
Average
Elements and the Periodic Table
By examining the element block for Magnesium on
p. 84 & 85, what is the elemental symbol for
Magnesium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Ca
M
Mg
Na
Elements and the Periodic Table
By examining the element block for Magnesium on
p. 84 & 85, what is its atomic number?
A.
B.
C.
D.
24.305
12
2
3
Elements and the Periodic Table
By examining the element block for Magnesium on
p. 84 & 85, what is the average atomic mass for
Magnesium?
A.
B.
C.
D.
12
2
24.305
3
Elements and the Periodic Table
By examining the element block for Magnesium
(Mg) on p. 84 & 85, what is the main reason why
magnesium’s atomic mass is NOT a whole number?
A. b/c protons and neutrons don’t weight exactly 1 mass unit
each.
B. b/c it’s the number of protons + the number of neutrons.
C. b/c it doesn’t include the mass of the electrons.
D. b/c it’s a weighted average of the isotopes that occur
naturally.
Elements and the Periodic Table
What’s probably the most common isotope of Neon
(#10)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Neon-10
Neon-20.179
Neon-20
N-10
Elements and the Periodic Table
What’s probably the most common isotope of Argon
(#18)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Argon-36
Argon-38
Argon-39
Argon-40
Elements and the Periodic Table
Noggin Knockers/Hwk. Grade (12 points)
1 (3 points)- protons (+), neutrons (0 or neutral), electrons (-)
2 (2 points)- b/c there is an equal number of positive charges
(protons) and negative charges (electrons)
3 N-15: (6 points)(a) Nitrogen
(b) Atomic # = 7
(c) 7 protons
(d) 7 electrons (same as # of protons, overall charge = 0)
(e) Mass = 15 amu
(f) 8 neutrons (Mass - # of protons = 15-7 = 8),
4 (1 point)- Atoms are too small to see even with a powerful
microscope
Elements and the Periodic Table
Learning Objectives
1. Explain how Mendeleev discovered the pattern that
led to the periodic table.
2. Describe the data about elements that are found in the
periodic table.
3. Describe how the organization of the periodic table is
used to predict the properties of elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table
Chemical Properties of Some Elements
Goal: (Use the title to determine the goal)
Conclusions (Periodic Table Trends)
Examine the columns in the periodic table that
contain the elements to the right and your
observations from the experiment.
1.
Elements in the same group or column have
____________ properties. (Similar or
different)
Data Table
Name of Element &
Group/Column
Magnesium (Group II or
2) + Water
Calcium (Group II or 2)
+ Water
2. As you go _________ (direction- use your
observations for magnesium and calcium
along with their locations on the periodic table) Aluminum (Group IIIA
or 13) + Water
and to the ___________ (different directionuse the sodium demo & its location on the
Lithium (Group I or 1) +
periodic table), the elements become more
reactive.
Water
After watching the reaction videos…
Sodium (Group I or 1) +
3. Vice versa, as you go _________ (direction)
Water
and way over to the ___________ (different
direction), the elements also are more reactive
(not counting the column or group all the way Potassium (Group I or 1)
to the right).
+ Water
Observations
Elements and the Periodic Table - Organizing the Elements
Organization of the Periodic Table
•Elements in a column or group also typically have similar properties.
•Examples- Sodium and Lithium reacting with water. Chlorine and bromine
gases are both harmful to your lungs.
•The 18 columns of the periodic table reflect a repeating pattern of
properties that generally occur across a period.
Elements and the Periodic Table
Mendeleev & the Periodic Table
Mendeleev originally noticed a repeating pattern of
properties (both chemical and physical) when he placed the
elements in order of atomic mass, unlike today’s periodic
table.
How is today’s periodic table arranged?
By atomic number (same as the number of protons)
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Melting Points in a Group of Elements
The properties of elements
within a single group in the
periodic table often vary in a
certain pattern. The following
graph shows the melting points
of Group 1 elements (alkali
metals) from lithium to francium.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
The metals in Group 1, from lithium to francium, are
the most reactive metals and are called the alkali
metals. Alkali metals react with atoms of other
elements by losing one electron.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
Group 2 of the periodic table contains the alkaline
earth metals. These elements are not as reactive as
the metals in Group 1, but they are more reactive
than most other metals.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
•The transition metals are less reactive than the metals in Groups 1 and 2.
All metals are typically shiny, malleable (can be hammered into flat
sheets), ductile (made into a long wire), and can conduct electricity.
•Also, the reactivity of metals decreases as you go across a row in the
periodic table.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
Only some of the elements in Groups 13 through 15 of the
periodic table are metals. These metals are not nearly as
reactive as those on the left side of the table.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
•Lanthanides are soft, malleable, shiny metals with high
conductivity.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
•The elements below the lanthanides are called actinides. Many of
these elements are so unstable that they last for only a fraction of a
second after they are made.
•The metals that follow uranium are man-made (synthetic) by
forcing nuclear particles to collide with one another.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
The Group 17 elements are the most reactive
nonmetals. Atoms of these elements easily form
compounds by sharing or gaining one electron when
reacting with atoms of other elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
The elements in Group 18 are known as the noble
gases. They do not ordinarily form compounds
because atoms of noble gases do not usually gain,
lose, or share electrons.
- Atoms,Table
Bonding, and the Periodic Table
Elements and the Periodic
The Periodic Table
The variety of colors in a “neon” sign
results from passing an electric
current through sealed glass tubes
containing different noble gases.
Elements and the Periodic Table
The modern periodic table is arranged according to
atomic _________, while the older periodic table
was arranged according to atomic _______.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Mass; number
Number; mass
Number; number
Mass; mass
Elements and the Periodic Table
A group or family on the periodic table is the same
as a
A.
B.
C.
D.
Horizontal row.
Vertical column.
Horizontal column.
Vertical row.
Elements and the Periodic Table
Elements in the same group or column tend to have
________ properties.
A.
B.
C.
D.
The same
different
similar
Completely different
Elements and the Periodic Table
As you move across a row or period on the periodic
table the properties of the elements tend to
A.
B.
C.
D.
Stay the same.
Change gradually.
Remain similar the whole way across.
Be completely different.
Elements and the Periodic Table
What would be an element with similar properties to
oxygen (#8)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Calcium (#20)
Fluorine (#9)
Nitrogen (#7)
Sulfur (#16)
Elements and the Periodic Table
Which group on the periodic table contains
elements that are highly reactive metals when
combined with water?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Group 2
Group 13
Group 17
Group 1
Elements and the Periodic Table
Which group contains highly reactive gases?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Group 1
Group 17
Group 16
Group 18
Elements and the Periodic Table
Which group contains non-reactive elements?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Group 1
Groups 3-12
Group 17
Group 18
Elements and the Periodic Table
Noggin Knockers (Hwk. Grade- 10 points)
1 (2 points)- The old table was arranged according to atomic mass while
the new one was arranged according to atomic number.
2 (1 point)- Silver
3 (2 points)- The masses on the table are a weighted average of the
isotopes that occur naturally.
4 (2 points- 1 point for each correct element)- Magnesium, Strontium,
Barium, Radium, or Beryllium
5 (1 point)- Group 1
6 (1 point)- Group 17
7 (1 point)- Group 18
Elements and the Periodic Table
Elements & the Periodic Table Practice Test Answers
1. Atoms; models
2. Nucleus
3. Protons and Neutrons- in the nucleus; electrons- outside the nucleus
4. Protons (+), Neutrons (0), Electrons (-)
5. Number
6. For an Ar-40 atom: Protons = 18, Neutrons = 22, Electrons = 18
7. 40 = Atom’s Mass
8. Neutral or 0, b/c the # or protons = # of electrons: +18 + (-18) = 0
Elements and the Periodic Table
Elements & the Periodic Table Practice Test Answers
9. Isotopes
10. The mass on the table is an average of all of argon’s isotopes.
11. Old = Atomic Mass, New = Atomic Number
12. Groups or Families
13. Similar
14. Group 1
15. Group 17
16. Group 18
17. Gold, Cobalt, Copper, Titanium, Nickel, etc.
18. (A) Argon- Neon, any element in group 18
(B) Iodine- Bromine, any element in group 17
(C) Americium- Plutonium, any element nearby
Elements and the Periodic Table - Organizing the Elements
Periodic Table Activity
Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and
access Active Art about the periodic table.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Organizing the Elements
Asking Questions
Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic
organizer like the one below, ask a what or how question for
each heading. As you read, write answers to your questions.
Question
Answers
What pattern of elements did
Mendeleev discover?
Patterns appeared when the
elements were arranged in order
of increasing atomic mass.
What data about elements is
found in the periodic table?
Atomic number, chemical
symbols and names, and
average atomic mass
How are elements organized
in the periodic table?
Elements are organized in
periods and groups based on
their properties.
Elements and the Periodic Table
End of Section:
Organizing the
Elements
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
The metals in Group 1, from lithium to francium, are
called the alkali metals. Alkali metals react with atoms
of other elements by losing one electron.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
Group 2 of the periodic table contains the alkaline
earth metals. These elements are not as reactive as
the metals in Group 1, but they are more reactive
than most other metals.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Melting Points in a Group of Elements
The properties of elements
within a single group in the
periodic table often vary in a
certain pattern. The following
graph shows the melting points
of Group 1 elements (alkali
metals) from lithium to francium.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Melting Points in a Group of Elements
Reading Graphs:
As you look at Group 1 from
lithium to francium, describe
how the melting points of the
alkali metals change.
Melting points decrease from
lithium to francium.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Melting Points in a Group of Elements
Predicting:
If element number 119 were
synthesized, it would fall
below francium in Group 1 of
the periodic table. Predict the
approximate melting point of
new element 119.
New element 119 should
have a melting point of
approximately 25ºC.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Melting Points in a Group of Elements
Interpreting Data:
Room temperature is usually
about 22ºC. Human body
temperature is 27ºC. Which of
the alkali metals are liquids at
room temperature? Which might
melt if you could hold them in
your hand?
None of the alkali metals are
liquids at room temperature.
Cesium and francium might melt
if you could hold them in your
hand.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
•The transition metals are less reactive than the metals in Groups 1 and 2.
All metals are typically shiny, malleable (can be hammered into flat
sheets), ductile (made into a long wire), and can conduct electricity.
•Also, the reactivity of metals decreases as you go across a row in the
periodic table.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
Only some of the elements in Groups 13 through 15 of the
periodic table are metals. These metals are not nearly as
reactive as those on the left side of the table.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
The Group 17 elements are the most reactive
nonmetals. Atoms of these elements easily form
compounds by sharing or gaining one electron when
reacting with atoms of other elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
•Lanthanides are soft, malleable, shiny metals with high
conductivity.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Metals in the Periodic Table
•The elements below the lanthanides are called actinides. Many of
these elements are so unstable that they last for only a fraction of a
second after they are made.
•The metals that follow uranium are man-made (synthetic) by
forcing nuclear particles to collide with one another.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Using Prior Knowledge
Before you read, write what you know about metals in a
graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what
you learn.
What You Know
1.
2.
Metals are shiny.
Some metals are magnetic.
What You Learned
1.
2.
Ductile metals can be pulled into a wire.
Alkali metals react by losing one electron.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Metals
Links on Metals
Click the SciLinks button for links on metals.
Elements and the Periodic Table
End of Section:
Metals
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Properties of Nonmetals
•Non-metals are typically dull & brittle (if they’re solid non-metals)
and poor conductors of heat and electricity, but they are fairly
reactive with other elements.
•When nonmetals react with metals, one or more electrons move
from the metal atoms to the nonmetal atoms.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
Each element in the carbon family has atoms that
can gain, lose, or share four electrons when reacting
with atoms of other elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
Group 15, the nitrogen family, contains two
nonmetals: nitrogen and phosphorus. These nonmetals usually gain or share three electrons when
reacting with atoms of other elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
Group 16, the oxygen family, contains three
nonmetals: oxygen, sulfur, and selenium. These
elements usually gain or share two electrons when
reacting with atoms of other elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
The Group 17 elements are the most reactive
nonmetals. Atoms of these elements easily form
compounds by sharing or gaining one electron when
reacting with atoms of other elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
The elements in Group 18 are known as the noble
gases. They do not ordinarily form compounds
because atoms of noble gases do not usually gain,
lose, or share electrons.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Families of Nonmetals
Because the chemical properties of hydrogen differ very
much from those of the other elements, it really cannot be
grouped into a family.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
The Metalloids
The metalloids have some characteristics of both metals and
nonmetals. The most useful property of the metalloids is their
varying ability to conduct electricity.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Using Prior Knowledge
Before you read, write what you know about nonmetals in a
graphic organizer like the one below. As you read, write what
you learn.
What You Know
1.
2.
Nonmetals are not shiny.
Nonmetals are not magnetic.
What You Learned
1.
2.
Nonmetals are dull and brittle.
Metalloids have characteristics of metals and
nonmetals.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Nonmetals and Metalloids
Links on Nonmetals
Click the SciLinks button for links on nonmetals.
Elements and the Periodic Table
End of Section:
Nonmetals and
Metalloids
Elements and the Periodic Table - Elements From Stardust
How Elements Form in Stars
Nuclear fusion, which occurs in stars on a huge scale,
combines smaller nuclei into larger nuclei, creating heavier
elements.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Elements From Stardust
Sequencing
As you read, make a flowchart like the one below that shows
how elements are formed in stars. Write the steps in
separate boxes in the flowchart in the order in which they
occur.
Hydrogen nuclei fuse, forming helium.
Helium nuclei fuse, forming beryllium.
Fusion continues in smaller stars, forming elements
up to oxygen.
Fusion in larger stars produces heavier elements up
to iron.
The heaviest elements form during supernova
explosions of the most massive stars.
Elements and the Periodic Table - Elements From Stardust
Links on Nuclear Fusion
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Elements and the Periodic Table
End of Section:
Elements From
Stardust
Elements and the Periodic Table
Graphic Organizer
Periodic table
is made up of
organizes
Elements
Rows
Columns
in order of increasing
called
called
Atomic
number
Periods
Families
and shows
or
Patterns of
properties
Groups
Elements and the Periodic Table
End of Section:
Graphic Organizer
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