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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Prof. Dr. Volbert Alexander
Goethe University Frankfurt
(Germany)
Bank of Greece, Athens April 2011
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
Banking regulation after the crisis became a dominant problem in the
present discussions. Many proposals are launched with the central focus
on the question:
How can future crises be avoided by prudent macro- and
microeconomic regulations ?
Presentation is concentrated on the following issues:
(1) The Situation of the Banking Sector after the Crisis
(2) Implemented and Planned Regulations According to Basel III
(3) Neglected Problems
(4) Summary and Conclusions
The analysis is concentrated on the discussion in Europe,
specific regulatory issues in US or Asia etc. are neglected.
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(1) The Situation of the Banking System
Ethics
Finance
afterinthe
Crisis
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
(2) Implemented and Planned Regulations according to Basel III
concentration on the following strategic magnitudes of banking business
( - ) capital
( - ) liquidity
( - ) leverage
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
(3) Neglected Problems
To sum up:
- Basel III relies on quantitative measures to enhance the balance
sheets of banks with a strong concentration on the capital base.
- Structural (systemically relevant banks) and qualitative (nature of
transactions) aspects of the present discussion are not included.
exception: In Germany uncovered short selling, in general,
is forbidden.
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
General problem for regulations:
Regulations in single countries or regions are not effective, because
banks immediately transfer businesses to unregulated regions. Global
regulations are not achievable or are possible only after very long periods
of negotiations.
Reluctance to introduce effective regulations on order to
avoid losses in the financial business.
The following aspects are neglected in the Basel III concept but will be
of significant importance for a future macro- and micro- prudential
regulation framework:
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
(-) capital market oriented instruments ( contingent capital = liabilities
which are converted into common capital in situations of shortages
in required capital ratios)
(-) structure of regulatory bodies ( Central Banks only or Central Banks
and an independent institution(Germany))
(-) reducing the „systemic“ importance of large banks
- universal banking or separate banking systems
- interbank indebtedness
(-) prohibition of special transactions (gambling)
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
Proposal for limiting banking transactions along the following criterion:
Do transactions of banks contribute to economic welfare ?
in detail: Do transactions of banks create, encourage or facilitate real
and monetary transactions improving the welfare of the
society ?
problem: pure gambling: Capital gains of the winner are equal to the
capital loss of the looser, the overall net value
remains unchanged.
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Banking Regulation after the Crisis
Ethics in Finance
Example: Bank A issues a DJ- certificate to the public with the following
(extremely simplified )characteristics:
- the papers earns an interest rate of 0% if the DJ does not
change more than +/- 2%
- if the DJ goes up more than +2% the interest rate follows
exactly
- if the DJ looses more than 2 % the paper looses correspondingly
Consequences: In all situations gains are matched by losses. In addition,
both parties are confronted with additional risk. An
overall increase in the net welfare of the society is not
observable.
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Banking
after the Crisis
Ethics inRegulation
Finance
(4) Summary and Conclusions
(-) The regulations of Basel III are a quantitave approach
to make bank`s balance sheets more crisis proof. They
will not be able to avoid future crises in a global system
of banks using all financial instruments existing today.
(-) Qualitative and structural regulations are necessary
reducing the systemic relevance of large banks and
limiting or prohibiting specific financial transactions.
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