Ch 18 classification

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Classification
Chapter 18
Historical background
Aristotle – first to classify living things.
-two major groups... plants and animals.
Plants separated by size (structure)
... herbs, shrubs, and trees.
Animals grouped by where they lived
...land, sea, or air.
http://www.glencoe.com/sec/science/biology/bio2000/biomovies/e20_1int.html
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) a Swedish naturalist
"Father of Taxonomy" developed the system we use
to name organisms today.
History cont’
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1707-1836)
established the major subdivisions of the
plant kingdom.
Georges Leoplod Cuvier (1769-1832)
established major "embranchments"
known as phyla, for the animal kingdom.
History cont’
Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) German introduced
the monera kingdom.
Herbert F. Copeland (1902-1968) an American
reclassified microorganisms, introduced
Kingdom protistica
Robert H. Whitaker (1924-1980) the American
founded the five kingdom system by elevating
the fungi to kingdom statis.
Taxonomy
 Branch in biology that names organisms
according to their characteristics
 Phylogeny – evolutionary history of
organism
History
 Aristotle – grouped into plant/animal
 Linnaeus – grouped by morphology (form
& structure) – features that are influenced
by genes and clues to common ancestry
Levels of classifiation:
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

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

Kingdom
Phyla
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Make your own mnemonic
 “Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk"
 "King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti.“
 “Keep Ponds Clean Or Fish Get Sick”
 “Katie Peels California Oranges For Grandma's
Supper”
 King Philip (David) Called Out “For Goodness Sakes! “
To understand how the classification system
works, let’s compare finding a species to
mailing a letter from overseas.
Classification Hierarchy
Kingdom
Animalia
Letter Hierarchy
Country
United States
Phylum/Division* Chordata
State
Pennsylvania
Class
Mammal
City/Town
DuBois
Order
Primate
Street
Orient Avenue
Family
Homoidae
House Number
1
Genus
Homo
Last Name
Horse
Species
sapiens
First Name
Charlie
Species name has 2 parts:
 System known as binomial nomenclature
 Genus (capitalized & italicized)
 identifier – descriptive word (italicized)
 E.g. Homo sapiens
 “homo” means man; “sapiens” means wise
Modern phylogenetic
taxonomy
18.2
Phylogenetic tree
 Represents hypothesis based on lines of
evidence (i.e. fossils, homologous form)
 Family tree shows evolutionary
relationships
Cladistics
 Classified by shared derived characters –
a feature that evolved within a group –
inherited from common ancestor
 E.g. feathers – a feature evolved in birds
Cladogram of the vertebrate chordates
cladogram of the phylogenetic
relationships of dinosaurs and birds
Modern systems of
classification
18.3
The Six Kingdoms
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Archaebacteria
Eubacteria
Protists
Fungi
Plants
Animals
How are organism placed
into their kingdoms?
 Cell type, complex or simple
 The number of cells in their body
 Their ability to make food
Kingdom
Cell type
Number of cells
Nutrition
Archaebacteria Prokaryotic
Unicellular
Auto/heterotrophy
Eubacteria
Prokaryotic
Unicellular
Auto/heterotrophy
Protista
Eukaryotic
Uni/multicellular
Auto/heterotrophy
Fungi
Eukaryotic
Uni/multicellular
Heterotrophy
Plantae
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Auto (rarely)
Heterotrophy
Animalia
Eukaryotic
Multicellular
Heterotrophy
Plants
 contains - flowering plants,
mosses, and ferns.
 all multicellular with complex cells.
 Autotrophs
 second largest kingdom.
Without plants, life on
Earth would not exist!
Plants feed almost all
the heterotrophs on
Earth. Wow!
Animals
 largest kingdom
 many complex cells
 heterotrophs
Sumatran Tiger
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Pathera
Species: tigris
Archaebacteria
 found in extreme environments such as
hot boiling water and thermal vents on
seafloor with no oxygen or highly acid
environments (likes salty water)
Mammoth Hot
Springs at
Yellowstone
National Park
Tubeworms
living near a
vent on floor in
Pacific Ocean
Eubacteria
 complex and single celled
 found everywhere
 classified in their own kingdom because
their chemical makeup is different.
Streptococci
Fungi
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Mushrooms, mold and mildew
multicellular and many complex cells
cannot make their own food
obtain food from parts of plants
that are decaying in the soil.
Protists

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Slime molds and algae
Complex cells
Most are unicellular
members are so different from one another.
all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, not
animals, not plants and not fungi.
 Not in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdoms.
because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex
cells. These delicate looking diatoms are classified
in the protist kingdom.
3 domains
 Domain Archaea
 Domain Bacteria
 Domain Eukarya
Eubacteria
Archaebacteria
Bacteria
(eubacteria)
Archaea
(archaebacteria)
Protista
Plantae
Fungi
Eukarya
(eukaryotes)
Animalia
References
 http://www.ric.edu/faculty/ptiskus/Six_Kingdoms/Index.htm
 http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/w/x/wxm15/Online/Taxonomy/
taxonomy_lec01.htm
 http://darwin.nmsu.edu/~molb470/fall2005/projects/pan/images/Ph
ylogeneticTreeOfLife.jpg
 http://www.nbii.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_3846_
404_1617_43/http%3B/publiccontent%3B7087/publishedcontent/publish/ecological_issues/gen
etic_biodiversity/phylogenetic_trees_intro/tree.gif
 http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoology/Biologicald
iverstity/Classification/cladogram_1.gif
 http://www.geocities.com/missneill/cyanobacteria.jpg
 http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/255/255hist/mcb1.1a.jpg
 http://www.ucl.ac.uk/Pharmacology/dc-bits/fungi-pics1-04m.jpg
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