WG-11 - A Virtual Field Trip of Physical Geography in Ventura County

• Australia’s amazing
• Australia’s Asian turn
• China coveting of
Australian commodities
• Aboriginal claims to land
and resources
• Foreign policy dilemmas
Down Under
• New Zealand’s matchless
• Australia and New Zealand
constitute a geographic
realm by virtue of territorial
dimensions, relative
location, and dominant
cultural landscape.
• Differ physiographically:
‒ Australia—vast, dry, low-
relief interior.
‒ New Zealand—mountainous
with a temperate climate.
• Marked by peripheral
because of its aridity and
New Zealand because of its
• Populations peripherally
distributed and highly
clustered in urban centers.
• Economic geography
dominated by the export of
livestock, specialty goods,
wheat, mineral resources.
• Integrated into the
economic framework of the
Asian Pacific Rim as
suppliers of raw materials.
• Heightened immigration
from neighboring realms—
Australia is “returning” to
Land and Environment
Plate Tectonics and Landscapes
• Australian Plate (most of the
‒ Stable
‒ Great Dividing Range
‒ Great Artesian Basin
‒ Murray-Darling River System
‒ Western Plateau and Margins
• New Zealand (border of
Australian and Pacific Plates).
‒ Earthquakes
‒ Volcanoes
‒ Mountains
• Australia
‒ Latitudinal position (Am-Cfb).
• Humid temperate in the east
• Eastern humid temperate
• Mediterranean in the south and
‒ Interior isolation
• Desert and steppe
• New Zealand
‒ Under influence of Southern
and Pacific Oceans (Cfb-H).
• Moderate, moist conditions
• Island nation
• Variation north-to-south, coast at
sea level to high elevation.
The Southern Ocean
•Surrounding Antarctica.
•Subtropical Convergence—marine transition where cold,
dense waters meet warmer waters of other three oceans.
‒ Change in temperature, chemistry, salinity, and marine fauna.
•West Wind Drift—the body of water circulates clockwise
around Antarctica.
•Australia’s Distinctive Flora/Fauna.
‒ Marsupials—Animals whose
young are born very early in their
development and then are carried in
an abdominal pouch.
• Examples: kangaroo, koala, platypus.
‒ Keystone plant species:
Eucalyptus tree.
•Biogeography—study of
distribution of fauna and flora.
‒Zoogeographical Regions—
Physical location of animal life
divided into zones.
‒Wallace’s Line vs. Weber’s Line:
where is the correct divide located?
•Aboriginal population arrival (50,000 years ago).
‒ Appears to have caused an ecosystem collapse.
‒ Widespread burning of existing forest, shrub, and
grasslands led to spread of desert scrub and caused
the rapid extinction of large mammals.
•Arrival of Europeans and livestock.
‒ Further destruction of remaining wildlife habitats.
‒ Big game hunting and extinctions.
‒ Change in land use patterns.
Regions of the Realm =
• Australia
• New Zealand
Historical Geography
•Aboriginal societies were longestablished, isolated human
populations in this realm.
•Arrival of Europeans doomed the
Aboriginals; loss of lands, rights,
The Seven Colonies
•Major coastal settlements became
centers of seven colonies.
•Pattern of straight-line boundaries.
•Northern Territory—Darwin
‒ Largest clusters of Aboriginals.
‒ Forced European assimilation.
‒ Anti-Asian immigration.
Successful Federation
•1901—Commonwealth of Australia
‒ 6 States
‒ 2 Federal Territories
• Northern Territory to protect the
interests of Aboriginal populations.
• Australian Capital Territory.
• Federal capital of Canberra.
•Federation—association among
territories sharing autonomy with a
central government.
•Unitary state—power is
concentrated in a strong, central
Sharing the Bounty
•No adequate sharing of national wealth.
•Aboriginal population
disproportionately disadvantaged.
‒ Lower life expectancies.
‒ Higher unemployment levels.
•National campaign to address these ills:
‒ Formal apology in 2008.
‒ Enhanced social services.
‒ Justice supports Aboriginal land claims.
•Ranks in the top 15 countries in the world
in terms of GNI.
•Far ahead of all its western Pacific Rim
competitors (except Japan and Singapore)
in terms of key development indicators.
• New immigration policy focus:
‒ Skills, financial status, age, and
facility with the English language.
‒ Relatives of earlier immigrants.
‒ Quota on asylum-seekers.
• Immigrants account for most of
population growth and
multicultural society.
Core and Periphery
• Core Area—population
concentrated in the east and
southeast facing the Pacific
‒ Secondary core area in the
southwest facing Indian Ocean.
• Periphery—the Outback.
‒ Spatial arrangement is a result
of climate.
An Urban Culture
•82% Urban population.
•Coastal orientation!
‒ Cities, manufacturing complexes,
and agricultural areas.
The Cities
•Australian cultural identity.
•Sameness of urban and rural
landscapes across the continent.
•Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane,
Perth, Adelaide, Hobart, Darwin
‒ Clean and orderly.
‒ High standards of public
‒ Part of “developed” world order.
• Sprawling metropolis.
• Compact, high-rise CBD.
• Port—ferry and freighter traffic.
Economic Geography
Agricultural Abundance
• Wool, Meat, and Wheat.
• Herding: Sheep-raising, Beef
and Dairy products
• Agriculture: Commercial grain
farming, Sugarcane in warm/
humid coastal areas,
Mediterranean and diverse crops
with irrigation.
Mineral Wealth
• Diverse and abundant mineral
‒ Gold, Oil and Natural Gas,
Coal, Nickel, Copper, Bauxite,
Tungsten, Asbestos, Iron Ore.
• Japan and China—Australia’s
best customers (raw materials).
Manufacturing’s Limits
•“Tyranny of distance”—expensive
imports from Britain and U.S.
•Import substitution—local
entrepreneurs establish their own
industries to produce goods cheaper
than imported because of high
transport costs.
•Diversified domestic industries:
‒ Machinery, textiles, chemicals
•Primary sector prominence—
export of raw materials.
•Service sector:
‒ Tourism—5% of economy.
Australia’s Challenges
• Ties to Europe weakening.
• Ties to Asia/Pacific Rim strengthening.
• Challenges at Home
Aboriginal claims.
Concerns involving immigration.
Environmental degradation.
Issues related to Australia’s status
and regional role.
Aboriginal Issues
•Aboriginal land issue
‒ 1992—Australian High Court ruled
in favor of Aboriginal claims.
‒ An Outback issue.
•Aboriginal Land Councils—make
people land-rich but dirt poor.
‒ Prevent private enterprise.
Immigration Issues
•Eugenic (race-specific) immigration policies until 1970s.
•Today, Asian immigrants outnumber natural increase.
‒ Hong Kong, Vietnam, China, the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka.
Environmental Issues
•Environmental degradation
‒ Aboriginal and European damage.
‒ Deforestation, mining, fertilizer.
‒ Extinction, endangered and
threatened species.
•Climatic variability:
‒ Arid dominance.
‒ El Niño events.
‒ Fresh water availability.
*Open pit mining and pollution.
*Great Barrier Reef – largest
continuous coral reef on Earth!
Australia’s Place in the World
•Question of Australia becoming a
republic or keeping the Queen.
•Ending its status as a British
•Relations with Indonesia, East
Timor, and Papua New Guinea.
•Growing global presence, influence
of Asia and Pacific Rim.
•USA allies—closer relations with
the U.S. Government.
‒ U.S. troops will be stationed at
Australian military bases (2012).
New Zealand
• 2 large mountainous islands
(scattered smaller islands).
‒ North Island
‒ South Island
• Southern Alps
• Along the “Ring of Fire.”
‒ Prone to volcanoes and earthquakes.
• Maori—people of Polynesian roots
would have been a part of the
Pacific Realm (dominant culture).
• European colonization—70% of
current population.
New Zealand
Human Spatial Organization
• Population concentrated in lowerlying slopes and lowland fringes.
‒ Peripheral development pattern.
‒ 86% urbanized.
‒ Coastal cities.
• Cropland and pastures:
‒ Sheep, dairy cattle, and beef cattle.
‒ Variety of vegetables, cereals, fruits.
• Primary export revenues—wool,
milk products, and meat.
• North Island
‒ Wellington—capital
‒ Auckland—largest urban area
• South Island
‒ Canterbury Plain
• Christchurch
‒ Dunedin
New Zealand’s Future
•1840—Maori and British Treaty
‒ Granted colonists sovereignty over New
Zealand, Maori rights over tribal lands.
•1862—Treaty revoked (imperialism).
•Maori land claims, growing demands.
‒1990s—New Zealand courts supported
Maori position.
•Cultural declaration: Maori as official
‒Cultural revival.
‒Power of native peoples.
‒Pursue sustainable lifestyles.
New Zealand
New Zealand
The Green Factor
•New Zealand is ranked first in
the world on a range of
environmental indices.
‒One of the leading “green”
societies in the world.
‒Long-active Green Party.
•Established environmental
conservation program.
‒30% of its land is protected.
‒70% + renewable energy sources
(hydro and geothermal).
‒Nuclear-free country.
‒Environmental courts hear cases
involving environmental
management decisions.
*Progressive politics, high quality of life, sustainable society.
1. Read Textbook Chapter 11
2. Homework:
• Choose one “@from the Field Notes”
subsection topic in Ch.11 textbook;
research and summarize (1 page).
• Choose a realm/region within Austral
Realm to review. Regions include Australia
and New Zealand. Choose a topic relating to
Austral Realm’s successes and failures.
3. Reminder: Homework due this week!