The history of New Zealand

New Zealand
Some Informations
Capital city – Wellington
Largest city - Auckland
Official languages - English, Māori, NZ Sign Language
Ethnic groups – European, Maori, Asian, Pacific peoples
Government - Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
Head of State - Queen Elizabeth II
Governor-General - Sir Anand Satyanand
Prime Minister - John Key
Speaker - Dr Lockwood Smith
Chief Justice - Dame Sian Elias
The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was
discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture
centred on kinship links and land. The first European explorer came to New
Zealand in 1642. From the late 18th century, the country was regularly visited by
explorers and other sailors, missionaries, traders and adventurers.
Anthem: "God Defend New Zealand"
"God Save the Queen"
Coats of Arms are widely
used in New Zealand by major
institutions, local authorities
and even in some cases
individuals. Their decorative
qualities, symbolism and
historical aspects hold an
enduring interest.
Geography and Environment
The South Island is the largest land mass of
New Zealand, and is divided along its length
by the Southern Alps, the highest peak of
which is Aoraki/Mount Cook at 12,320ft.
New Zealand comprises two main
islands, the North and South Islands
called Te Ika a Maui and Te Wai
Climbing the Fox Glacier, one of
New Zealand’s most spectacular,
on the West Coast of the South
Island. The massive Fox and
Franz Josef Glaciers, in the West
Coast of the South Island, are a
must for any visitor.
Mitre Peak looks over the tranquil
waters of Milford Sound in
Fiordland. This region is an area
of immense grandeur and
exquisite beauty. Visitors can
explore its deep and mysterious
waters in vessels ranging from
kayaks to cruise ships.
Sport has a major role in New Zealand's culture,
with the unofficial national sport of rugby union
being particularly influential. Other popular
participatory sports include cricket, bowls, netball,
soccer, motorsport, golf, swimming and tennis. New
Zealand has strong international teams in several
sports including rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby
league, and softball. New Zealand also has
traditionally done well in the sports of rowing,
yachting and cycling.
New Zealand is also well known for its extreme
sports and adventure tourism
Capital city – Ottawa
Largest city – Toronto
Population - 28 million people
Official languages - English and French
Ethnic groups - White/European (English, French, Scottish, Irish,
German),South Asian, Chinese, Aboriginal, Asian, Black/Africa, Others
The Royal Coat of Arms of
Canada is, since 1921, the
official coat of arms of the
Canadian monarch, and thus
also of Canada. It is closely
modelled after the royal coat of
arms of the United Kingdom with
distinctive Canadian elements
replacing or added to those
derived from the British.
Native Americans lived in Canada for thousands of years. In the early
1600s, colonists from Britain and France began to settle in eastern Canada,
along the St. Lawrence River. Canada proved to be an excellent spot for
trapping and trading of furs. In the 1800s, settlers began to push west. Most
of the native Americans were displaced by the Europeans.
Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean
on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on
the north, north of the conterminous US
Canada is the world's second largest country in total area after Russia
Canada has a very large and diverse range of geographic features.
Canada is divided into 10 provinces and 2 territories. Canada
stretches from the Pacific Ocean on the west, to the Atlantic Ocean on
the east. Northern Canada reaches into the Arctic Circle, while
southern Canada stretches below the northern points of the United
Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Lowlands Prior to its colonization and heavy urban
sprawl of the 20th century, this area was
home to large mixed forests covering a mostly
flat area of land between the Appalachian
Mountains and the Canadian Shield
Appalachian Mountains - The
Appalachian mountain range extends
from Alabama in the southern United
States through the Gaspé Peninsula and
the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling
hills indented by river valleys. It also runs
through parts of southern Quebec.
The majority of Canada is still
wilderness. This makes Canada a
popular spot for hunting and fishing
With Canada being so large, the climate
varies considerably throughout the country.
Canada is generally known for its cold winters
and hot, but short, Summers
Capital - Canberra
Largest city - Sydney
National language - English
Ethnic groups - white, Asian, Aboriginal and other
Population – about 21 750 000
The present coat of arms was granted
by King George V in 1912. It consists
of a shield depicting the badges of the
six Australian states, enclosed by an
ermine border. The shield is a symbol
for the federation of the states, which
took place in 1901.
The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted
the landmass in the 17th century. The interpretation of the history of
Australia is currently a matter of some contention, particularly regarding the
British settlement and early treatment of Indigenous Australians
The first inhabitants of Australia were the Aborigines, who migrated there at
least 40,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. There may have been between
a half million to a full million Aborigines at the time of European settlement;
today about 350,000 live in Australia.
The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic
regions being the world's smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in
the world. The population of Australia is concentrated along the eastern and
southeastern coasts. The geography of the country is extremely diverse,
ranging from the snow capped mountains of the Australian Alps and
Tasmania to large deserts, tropical and temperate forests
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most
substantial mountain range and the 4th longest in the world
Victoria River is the longest river in the Northern Territory.
Platypus is found in eastern Australia. They live
aside freshwater rivers or lakes, and create
burrows for shelter and protection. They are active
mainly at nighttime hours, and use their webbed
feet for swimming. When swimming the platypus
has its eyes shut. They swim underwater for 2
minutes, before returning to the surface for
oxygen. They can however stay underwater for up
to 10 minutes, and due to their natural buoyancy,
they need to be underneath another object to do
The Koala is one of Australia's best known
animals. It is an icon represented when promoting
Australia to the tourist industry, and in general
people adore these cuddly creatures. There are
two species, the Southern Koalas and the Northern
The huntsman spider is found throughout southeastern Australia. It lives anywhere, favouring
plants which will offer shelter such as ivy. It is very
common to have huntsman spiders in urban areas,
and the spiders will come inside your house.
In winter typical daily maximums are from 20 to 24 degrees Celsius and rain
is rare, Further south, the weather is less dependable; in Melbourne in
August maximums as low as 13C degrees are possible, but can reach as
high as 23C
In summer, the northern states are hotter and wetter, while the southern
states are simply hotter, with temperatures up to 41C in Sydney, Adelaide,
and Melbourne but generally between 25C and 33C
Snow is rare in the southernmost capitals Melbourne and Hobart, falling
less than once every ten years, and in the other capitals it is unknown
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