PA Mammals

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PA Mammals
Envirothon 2011
Predator
• A predator is an animal that feeds on other
animals in order to survive.
• Some examples would be bears, coyotes,
snakes
• Some predators can also be prey as well, like
sometimes lions eat other lions
• Most of the time predators herbivore
Prey
• Prey are the animals eaten to keep other
animals alive.
• More often then not the animals eaten are
herbivores.
• Some examples of prey are bunnies, mice, and
fish.
Autotrophs v. Heterotrophs
• Autotrophs
– Produce food from the
sun
• Heterotroph
– Must eat other things
(living or non living) for
energy
Carnivore
• Animals that eat meat, mostly other animals
that are smaller than they are or less fierce.
• Some examples of carnivores
– Bobcats
– Coyotes
– Owls
– Praying mantis
Herbivores
• Herbivores are animals that eat plants and
greens such as leaves and grass.
• When herbivores eat it is usually called
grazing.
• An example of an herbivore would be a rabbit
or goat.
Omnivore
• An omnivore is an animal that eats plants and
other animals.
• An example of an omnivore would be a bear
because a bear eats berries and fish.
Food Chain
• The food chain is the order in which the
animals eat or are eaten.
FOOD CHAINS AND FOOD WEBS - illustrate
the flow of energy in an ecosystem
*Note the direction of the arrows: they indicate where the energy is going when
one organism consumes another
Each step in a
chain or web is
called a TROPHIC
LEVEL
.
Identify:
Autotroph
Primary Consumers
Secondary Consumers
Tertiary Consumers
Find the Omnivore
• Autotroph
Identify
– Two sets of leaves
• Primary consumer
– Mouse, cricket, rabbit, squirrel
• Secondary consumer
– Fox, mouse, frog, snake
• Tertiary consumer
– Fox, owl, snake
• Omnivore
– mouse
Ecological Pyramids
Energy Pyramid
Biomass Pyramid
Pyramid of Numbers
Mammal
• Mammals (formally Mammalia) are a class of
vertebrate, air-breathing animals whose
females are characterized by the possession of
mammary glands while both males and
females are characterized by hair and/or fur,
three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a
neocortex region in the brain. Some mammals
have sweat glands, but most do not. Give birth
to live young.
Endangered
• Pose a threat to go extinct.
• Some endangered animals are
– Gray wolf, Mexican bobcat, West Indian Manatee,
and the jaguar.
Extinct
• No longer in existence.
• Some animals that are extinct are
– Barbados Raccoon, Bulldog rat, and Dark flying
fox.
Why animals go extinct or become
endangered.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Loss of habitat
Low food source
Not enough room to live
Poachers
Pollution
Killed of by other animals
Disease
Major causes of habitat loss in Pa.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Deforestation
Water pollution
Mining
Logging
Trawling- when boats use nets to catch fish.
Urban sprawl- when cities get bigger
Noise pollution
How we can help.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Reduce
Reuse
Recycle
Refuse
Car pool
Turn off lights when not in use.
Use energy saving light bulbs.
Reuse unbleached recycled paper.
Adaptations
• Usually related to the food they eat
– Teeth
– Feet
– Muscular system
– Eyes/eyesight
Teeth adaptations
1.Human –
omnivore
2.Herbivore
3.Carnivore
4.Carnivore
5.Herbivore
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