SCALLOP RANCHING`S POTENTIAL FOR SCOTLAND. - Scot

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SCALLOP RANCHING`S
POTENTIAL FOR
SCOTLAND.
FURTHER READING TO
“SCALLOP RANCHING. A
SUSTAINABLE FUTURE”
IN 35 YEARS, SALMON FARMING HAS
GROWN TO BE SCOTLAND`S BIGGEST
FOOD EXPORT
• In 2011 Scotland produced nearly
160,000 Tonnes of farmed
salmon.
• The “farm gate” value was over
£1/2 billion.
• 2000 people were directly
employed in production and
many others employed indirectly.
• Scottish Salmon enjoys the same
reputation for quality that all
Scottish seafood does.
THE WEST COAST AND ISLANDS OF
SCOTLAND ARE IDEAL FOR THE
PRODUCTION OF KING SCALLOPS.
- Relatively high winter sea
temperatures ensure a long growing
season.
- Sheltered sea lochs are perfect for
the intermediate on-growing stage.
- Summer sea temperatures do not
rise to dangerous levels. (+20oC)
- The reputation for the quality of
Scottish seafood is worldwide and
as such can command a premium
price.
SALMON FARMING HAS GROWN INSPITE
OF THE MANY PROBLEMS IT HAS FACED
AND CONTINUES TO FACE
• SALMON REQUIRE EXPENSIVE, ARTIFICIAL
FEED.
• SCALLOPS FEED FOR FREE IN THE SEA ON
NATURALLY OCCURING ALGAE.
• SALMON CAN REQUIRE ANTI-BIOTICS TO
CONTROL DISEASE.
• SCALLOPS DO NOT REQUIRE ANTI-BIOTICS
EVEN DURING THE HATCHERY STAGE.
• SALMON CAN BE TREATED WITH CHEMICALS
TO REMOVE SEA LICE.
• SCALLOPS REQUIRE NO CHEMICAL
TREATMENT.
• SCALLOP PRODUCTION IS FAR
MORE FRIENDLY TO THE
ENVIRONMENT.
PROBLEMS FACING THE
DEVELOPMENT OF A SCALLOP
RANCHING INDUSTRY.
• A Salmon can be produced in 18-24 months. It takes a
minimum of 4 years to grow a Scallop.( 6 years to grow
a real quality Scallop) This requires long term
investment.
• A Salmon is kept in a cage where they can be
monitored. Scallops, once released to the seabed on a
large scale are at the mercy of predators (natural and
human).
• Currently, Scotland does not have a Scallop hatchery
and spat has to be sourced from Norway. Large scale
development would require a hatchery in Scotland
• The perceived “them and us” relationship between
fisherman and Government needs to change to one of
co-operation and support.
• Scallops have never been ranched on a large scale in
Scotland.
• Fishermen are notorious for not embracing change.
Ranching requires the closure of areas to mobile gear
whilst the Scallops are growing. There can be no doubt
that this will not be taken lightly by certain sectors of
the Fishing industry.
What we have achieved
so far
• In 2010 we imported Norwegian Scallop spat into
Scotland. But between Customs, the quality of
the spat, timing etc. It was a disaster.
• In 2011 we sent our own Scottish Scallops to
Norway where they were successfully spawned
and reared to 5-15mm.
• However, once again we encountered quality ,
transport and timing problems that resulted in
97% losses from the 320,000 imported.
• In 2012 we tried again and were successful.
+99% survival and growth that we can only
describe as amazing.
• We have spent £50,000 on this project so far and
are awaiting a decision from a Norwegian
Government body for funding to complete
further research into the transport of Scallop
spat.
• We have already selected our Breeding Stock for
2013 and these will be sent to Norway for
conditioning and spawning in late winter.
Why a hatchery in Scotland
is essential to the future of
Scallop Ranching.
• The collection of natural spat has been pitiful in recent
years and has never been reliable enough to ensure
large scale production.
• A hatchery can consistently produce Scallop spat.
• It can take adult Scallops from specific areas, spawn
them and then return the offspring to preserve the
genetic integrity of that area. For example , this would
allow the Hatchery to supply the Isle of Man or
Mulroy Bay in Ireland. Places that have already shown
an interest in our project.
• A hatchery can produce Scallop spat out of season.
The importance of this can not be underestimated; it
can dramatically reduce the time Scallops spend in the
intermediate growing stage. This reduces costs.
• At present we are able to rely on the Norwegian
Hatchery but we could not proceed with large scale
production on this basis.
• A Scallop hatchery could also produce oyster spat.
Disease problems in France have seen an increase in
the interest in finding healthy oyster stocks in disease
free areas such as Scotland.
How Scallop ranching works
• After the a year in the hatchery and intermediate
growing stage the young scallop is ready to be put on
the seabed with a shell height of 40mm.
• The seabed will have been prepared by being dredged
heavily to remove/kill as many predators as possible.
• Scallops are distributed at about 5-10 shells per m2.
Each hectare can sustain 50-100,000 Scallops.
• Globally , survival rates for Ranched Scallops where
there is no further intervention, i.e the ground is not
regularly creeled, is reported at 25-33%.
• Our own experience of Ranching but where we dive
and creel to remove predators, results in +70%
survival.
• After 4 years on the seabed the Scallops should be
110mm. But if left longer will grow and become even
more valuable. The Scallops are harvested by dredge
and because of their density on the seabed the effort
(time, fuel, wear and tear) is massively reduced when
compared to fishing for “wild” Scallops.
• Dredged Scallops are usually valued on their “yield”.
This is the weight of edible Scallop meat recovered
from the shell. On average 5Kg of whole shell would
“yield” 1 Kg of meat. We know through our experience
as Scallop divers that it is possible to engineer better
yields. Depth, tidal strength, time of year and type of
seabed are all factors that influence yield. Yield can
vary by +30% between Scallops from different areas,
this means a +30% difference in profit when sold by
“yield”.
LEGISLATION
• Legislation currently exists that
gives the Exclusive Right to Fish
within a specified area for a
named species to an individual or
group. Known as a Several Fishery
Order this Legislation is essential
to future Scallop Ranching. The
Several Order does not “close” an
area: Creel fisherman can still
operate and leisure craft are
unaffected. Only fishing methods
that interfere with the seabed are
prohibited i.e dredging and
trawling.
THE VISION
• In 35years will we be celebrating the King
Scallop as Scotland`s biggest food export?
• It took 40years for the Japanese to grow
production from 10,000T to 400,000T. If we
had managed the same we would have a
£1billion pound ex fishing boat industry,
with a retail value of over £2billion.
Thousands of jobs in “fragile” areas would
have been created.
• We already have a successful Salmon
Industry, but it is at the mercy of global
feed prices and is hampered by an antisalmon farm movement.
• Scallop food is free and the production can
be considered as very “green”.
• We should be making better use of one of
our greatest natural resources, the Sea.
• We really need to get started.
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