Sarah Betbeze 7/10/13 Rachycentron canadum Family Rachycentridae courtesy NOAA Top producing countries: China and Taiwan Province of China (P.C.) Taiwan P.C. Production costs = ~$2.20/kg in 2001 Market value is based on size 7.7 kg (17 lbs.) or more $5.50/kg in 2004 for whole fish Taiwan keeps 8-10 kg cobia and sells them whole. 6-8 kg cobia are sent to Japan. Fillets usually sent to other countries Other countries where cobia aquaculture occurs: Bahamas, Belize, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Philippines, Puerto Rico, USA, and Vietnam Egg larva juvenile adult Spawning season in G.O.M. = April through September Every 9-12 days, 15-20 times Dispense eggs and sperm into the water; fertilization occurs Larvae hatch ~24-36 hours following fertilization Day 30 – Juvenile already has markings and coloration of adult cobia Age during first spawning season Males ---- about 1-2 yrs old Females ---- about 2-3 yrs old Broodstock caught in wild during normal spawning season Spawning Can be stimulated in 2 ways: Hormones Controlling photoperiod and water temperature www.fao.org www.lib.noaa.gov Hatcheries, nurseries, and grow-out cages employed Larvae raised in “greenwater” nursery ponds Days 20-45 Moved to bigger ponds; reach 30g Days 75-150/180 Introduced to buoyant, pelleted food; reach 2-5g Days 45-75 Until day 20 Moved to even bigger ponds or near-shore cages where they reach 1.3-2.2 lbs. Moved to grow-out cages www.fao.org 13-22 lbs. Favorite dish: swimming crabs Opportunistic carnivores Fish, crab, shrimp, squid Taiwan P.C. Feed cobia sinking and buoyant pellets 6 days a week Blue crab --- naturelssi.com Squid ---- dpi.nsw.gov.au Shrimp ----- fishwatch.gov Cobia ---- seasquaredcharters.com Dissolved Oxygen pH At least 5ppm (mg/L) When spawning ----- ~7.8 Water temperature >79 degrees Fahrenheit (26 degrees Celsius) Pros Quick growth rate Good FCR Fantastic flesh quality Limited wild population Can handle a large variety of salinities Cons Difficult to obtain trash fish to feed them Pond cultures have potential to cause water quality problems & excess nutrient loading in the outflowing water Prone to diseases Bester, Cathleen. "FLMNH Ichthyology Department: Cobia." FLMNH Ichthyology Department: Cobia. Florida Museum of Natural History, n.d. Web. 01 July 2013. <http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/Gallery/Descript/cobia/cobia.html>. Kaiser, Jeffrey B., and Joan Holt. "Species Profile: Cobia." Southern Regional Aquaculture Center, Aug. 2005. Web. June 2013. <https://srac.tamu.edu/index.cfm/event/getFactSheet/whichfactsheet/180/ >. Perschbacher, Peter, Dr. "Rachycentridae." Rachycentridae. Aquaculture/Fisheries Center, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff, n.d. Web. 06 July 2013. <http://www.uaex.edu/pperschbacher/Fish/Cobia.htm>. "Rachycentron Canadum." FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Department. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2013. Web. June 2013. <http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Rachycentron_canadum/en>.