Plug-In Electric Vehicle Introduction

Plug-in Electric Vehicles
Bill Boyce
September, 2013
Powering forward. Together.
The Alphabet Soup of EV’s
•PEV: Plug-in electric vehicle includes EV’s, BEV’s, PHEV’s and EREV’s
•EV’s Electric Vehicles
•BEV’s are Battery Electric Vehicles
•PHEV’s are Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (generically includes EREV’s)
•EREV are Extended Range Electric Vehicles
•EVSE: Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (informally called a charger)
•Level 1 EVSE is a standard 120V electrical outlet (typically 1.5kW)
•Level 2 EVSE is a 208 or 240V dedicated charging device (3.3 to 19.2kW)
•DC Fast Charging is an off-board dedicated charger
• 20 to 100kW charging Level
•Approaches a gas station model with target 20 to 30 minute charge times
•FCEV or FCV: Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle or Fuel Cell Vehicle
•700 or 350 bar: Refueling pressure (10,000 or 5,000 lbs/in2)
PEV Model Introductions Continue
Tesla Roadster
Nissan Leaf
Chevrolet Volt
2012 Honda Fit EV
Nissan Leaf
Chevrolet Volt
Mitsubishi i
Toyota Prius Plug-in
Toyota Rav-4EV
Ford Focus EV
Ford C-Max Energi
Ford Fusion Energi
BMW Active E, i3
Honda Fit EV
Honda Accord PHEV
Tesla Model S
Chevrolet Spark
Fiat 500e
Graphic courtesy of the California PEV Collaborative
2012 Tesla Model S
Current PEV Sales are Double the Original Hybrids
# of U.S. Vehicles Sold
2011-2012 PEV Total
2011-2012 PHEV/EREV
2000-2001 Hybrids
2011-2012 BEV
End of Year
PEV Vehicle Market Observations
•California is the leading market for PEV’s
•August of 2013 was the highest sales month to date for the Nissan Leaf
and Chevrolet Volt
•Tesla Model S Sales have surprised the traditional auto industry
•On track to sell 20,000 units this year
•#1 selling luxury category vehicle in California this year
•General consumers still not aware of the differences between PHEV’s and BEV’s
•Northern California buying more BEV’s
•Southern California buying more PHEV’s
Where do people charge? At Home
•Average vehicle is using approximately 8 kWh a day (30 miles)
•Average BEV is charging once per day
•Average PHEV is charging 1.1 times per day
•Multi-Unit-Dwelling is still a challenge
DC Fast Charging Buzz for public charging
•Addresses range anxiety and emulates a gas station
with a 30 minute charging time (versus 4 hours)
•$100M NRG Energy settlement has everyone excited
•200 DC Fast Chargers planned
•Nissan is providing support for charging hardware
•SMUD Planning up to 8 DC Fast Chargers
•Unfortunately two standards will be needed
U.S. / European
SAE Combo
Ongoing SMUD PEV Initiatives
•EV Innovators Residential Rate Pilot Program
•6₵ a kWh for charging after midnight (≈ 60₵/gallon gasoline!)
•Smart charging options to avoid peak penalties
•PEV Demonstration efforts with General Motors and Chrysler
•Sacramento DC Fast Charger Pilot Deployment Program
•Upwards of 4 fast chargers to be installed in 2013
•New Vehicle Data collection effort with APPA and EPRI
•Home versus Workplace versus Public charging profile for Sacramento
•Truck Stop Electrification
•Enlarging electrified parking stalls at the 49er Travel Plaza
•Recruiting customers for electrified truck refrigeration demonstration
•Distribution Grid Impact Analysis
•Charging level has more impacts than time of day
•Level 1 and Smart Charging show the least impacts
•Commercial Customer Support
•Workplace Charging consulting
FCEV Announcements on Commercialization
Jan 2013: US DOE launches public/private
partnership to support H2 infrastructure
 Sep 2012: Toyota announces sedan-type FCEV
launch in 2015
 Sep 2012: Honda’s President reiterates company’s
plan to release an all-new FCEV starting in 2015
 Jan 2013: Toyota/BMW announce partnership
including FC technology
 Jan 2013: Daimler/Nissan/Ford joint development of
affordable FCEV to be launched as early as 2017
 Feb 2013: Hyundai Tucson ix35 FCEV production
 Jul 2013: GM and Honda to collaborate on next
generation FC technology; Honda affirms 2015 launch
Major fueling infrastructure push planned for 2013/2014
•13 Hydrogen stations are currently in operation
•9 Stations are open to the public
•18 more stations have been funded
•AB8 Passed extending funding for infrastructure
•67 Stations planned for minimum network
•Overall plan calls for 100 stations
Information from the CARB Website and CaFCP California 2012 Roadmap
•PEV sales twice the original hybrid vehicle introduction and Tesla sales
are drawing attention
•Primary charging occurs at home, but multifamily dwellings are still
very difficult
•DC Fast Charging seams to address PEV range anxiety
•FCEV market launch poised for 2015
•Lots of hydrogen refueling infrastructure up for construction