中学英语教学法 第四次导学课 主讲：陈道明 （华南师范大学外文学院） [email protected] 本学期的学习计划 请仔细阅读网络工作室里“通知公告”栏中的所有内容。 期末考试以前学习安排： • 学习主题：第四次导学课，教案，复习，准备考试。 • 要做的事情： 1. 登录“网梯”听第四次导学课（6月5日，星期天，上午8:1010:10 ），或补听导学课。 “网梯”地址：http://126.96.36.199/mcs2/ 2. 学习《英语教学法教程》（第二版）第12-13单元。 3. 准备好期末考试的教案。（教学内容和教案要求将挂在网 上工作室的“复习资料”栏里） 注意：禁止将你的教案带入考场抄录，也禁止你的教案 与他人雷同。 4. 复习本学期的学习内容，准备期末考试。 第四次导学课内容 • Teaching Writing (第一版Unit 11，第二版Unit 12) • Integrated Skills (第一版Unit 12，第二版Unit 13) • 关于期末考试考试涉及的内容 • 关于期末考试的题型 • 期末考试教案设计六点注意 • 关于答题卡“考号”栏的填图方法 Teaching Writing (第一版Unit 11，第二版Unit 12) Topics for discussion: 1. What, why and how do we write? 2. A communicative approach to writing 3. Problems in writing tasks in existing textbooks and classroom teaching 4. A process approach to writing 5. Motivating students to write 6. Designing writing tasks 7. Writing through the internet 8. Three approaches to writing A communicative approach to writing To motivate students, it is necessary to engage them in some act of communication. • Either writing for a specific recipient (e.g. a letter to a friend), or: • Engaging in an act of creative writing where their work is intended to be read by other people. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 • In short, students can be motivated by authentic writing tasks that have some communicative elements. • However some writing activities can be between “writing for learning” and “writing for communication”. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 • Some examples of writing tasks: are they for consolidating language, or are they for communication? (2nd ed.: 209-11) 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 e.g. 1 (p. 209) Writing Join the pairs of sentences, using when/where. Example: Kentucky is the state. Lincoln was born there. Kentucky is the state where Lincoln was born. 1. This book is about time. Lincoln was president then. 2. This is the house. Lincoln was born there. 3. … 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 e.g. 2 (p. 209) Letter writing A friend is coming to visit your hometown/village. Unfortunately you will be away. Write a short letter to your fiend and make some suggestions about sightseeing and other activities in your area. e.g. 5 (p. 210) Letter writing Do you think any of the courses (maths, physics, English, history, etc.) you are taking now can be improved in some way. If yes, write a short letter to the teacher and present some suggestions. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 Problems in writing tasks Deficiencies of writing tasks in existing English textbooks: • They are mainly accuracy-based. • They are designed to practise certain target structures. • There is insufficient preparation before the writing stage. • 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 • There is no sense of audience. • There is no sense of authenticity. • Students are given ideas to express rather than being invited to invent their own. • There is no opportunity for creative writing, particularly for expressing unusual or original ideas. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 Compare 2 examples: e.g. 1 (p. 212) Writing Write about the sports which you like. Use phrases like these: I don’t like … I enjoy … My favourite sport is … I quite like … I prefer … to … I like … because … 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 e.g. 2 (p. 213) An E-friend has written to you and has described the sports he likes most. Write an Email to him and tell him your favourite sports too. (A sample letter is presented here.) A process approach to writing Features of process writing: 1. Focus on the process of writing; 2. Help students to understand their own composing process; 3. Help to build strategies for prewriting, drafting, and rewriting; 4. Give students time to write and rewrite; 5. Place central importance on the process of revision; • 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 6. Let students discover what they want to say as they write; 7. Give students feedback throughout the composing process to consider as they attempt to bring their expression closer and closer to intention; 8. Encourage feedback both from the instructor and peers; 9. Include individual conferences between teacher and student during the process of composing. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 Main procedures of process writing include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Creating a motivation to write, Brainstorming, Mapping, Free writing, Outlining, Drafting, Editing, Revising, Proofreading, Conferencing (Publishing) Creating a motivation to write • The first thing a teacher needs to do to teach writing • Create a clear purpose or a reason to write. • Therefore, the topic for writing should be familiar, meaningful and relevant to student’s life and interest. Brainstorming, • Students can list all the ideas related to topic on a piece of paper or on the blackboard. • The important thing is to get students to think freely and put down all possible ideas that come their minds. Brainstorming Smoking • Bad for health Expensive • Pollute the air • Dangerous • Waste money • • • • cause lung cancer Bad for non-smokers Cause fire … Mapping bad for non-smokers bad for health cause lung cancer dangerous cause fire indoor smoking public places pollute the air SMOKING expensive waste of money Free writing • Refers to the stage when students start writing freely about the topic following mapping. • Usually students are given 10 to 15 minutes during which time they are asked to write anything that comes to their minds as quickly as possible. • They do not need to care too much about spelling or grammar. This stage can develop fluency in writing. Outlining • The students need to write a more detailed outline. • It may include the main idea of each paragraph with topic sentences and notes for supporting details. • It may also include an introduction and a conclusion. • The outline can be changed. Drafting • The development of ideas are more important than getting grammatical structures, punctuation or spelling correct. • Students should be given enough time to write the first draft. Editing • The students read through their writings and check the clarity of ideas or the logical development of their arguments. • They also check carefully the grammar, spelling and punctuation of their writings. • Editing may take two forms: peer editing and self-editing. • Editing is not simply to find errors about one’s or others’ writing, but to negotiate meaning and improving writing. (pp.216-7) Revising • The teacher guides the students to make necessary improvements in both organization and contents based on either self-editing or peer editing. e.g. adding new points or deleting irrelevant facts, and correcting errors in spelling, punctuation, grammar or choice of words. Proofreading • Students should be guided to read their writings again carefully for any mistakes in grammar, spelling, punctuation, or capitalization. • The teacher should limit his/her involvement in making corrections for the students. • He/she can underline those problematic items and leave them for the students to do the correction themselves. Conferencing • It refers to a private meeting between the teacher and each individual student. • In big classes, it can be a class conference focusing on the main problems and features of good writings • One point which is extremely important for teachers is that a teacher’s attitude can influence students’ confidence and motivation to write. An example of teaching writing Step 1: raising a question: what problems is our city confronted with? Step 2: a brief discussion on the problems; Step 3: group discussion on solutions; Step 4: individual composing: My Solutions to the Problem of …; Step 5: reading one’s own composition, making suggestions on how to make improvement, focusing on ideas rather 本页内容在网上课件中 than on language; 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 Step 6: rewriting, selecting and organising ideas, keeping an eye on language; Step 7: grouping students based on the topics, letting students read their own composition; Step 8: making a list of optimal solutions, producing a product of the whole group; Step 9: creating a Class News Letter like “Problems and Solutions in Our City”; Step 10: publishing. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Eleven有讲解。 Motivating students to write 1. Make the topic of writing as close as possible to students’ life. (A few topics can be given to students to choose.) 2. Leave students enough room for creativity and imagination. 3. Prepare students well before writing. 4. Encourage collaborative group writing as well as individual writing. Motivating students to write 5. Provide opportunities for students to share their writings. 6. Provide constructive and positive feedback. 7. Treat students’ errors strategically. 8. Give students a sense of achievement from time to time. Designing writing tasks • The examples are on pp.224-5 Sample task 1 Topic: write an invitation letter and a reply Procedures: Write each student’s name on a small piece of paper, and fold the paper. Put the pieces of paper in a box and walk around in the classroom. Ask each student in the class to pick up a piece of paper. Tell them not to show it to the other students. Ask students to write an invitation letter to the person whose name is on the paper they picked. After 20 minutes, ask each student to present their invitation letters. Then the student who is invited should write a reply to the invitation, either as a letter of acceptance or refusal. Sample task 2 Topic: Describing an object Procedures: Read an extract of Gulliver’s Travel. Imagine that you are 20 centimeter’s tall, like the Lilliputians in Gulliver’s Travel. Choose an object from your schoolbag and describe it from the point of view of a person of 20 centimeter tall. Try to use as many adjectives as possible. Sample task 3 Topic: Describing people Procedures: Brainstorm words for describing of people and learn some new words. Read a few samples of descriptions of people. Ask each students to choose a classmate to describe without mentioning his/her name. Ask a few students to read their descriptions in class one by one and other students guess who the person is according to the description given. Conclusion • Two approaches to writing: the communicative approach, and the process approach. • The teaching of writing should focus on the process rather than the product, and that all the writing tasks should have communicative purposes. • Some principles for teaching writing and how teachers can motivate students to write. Three approaches to writing 1. The Traditional Approach: The accuracy is emphasized. 2. The Process Approach: The process is emphasized. 3. The Genre Approach: The effect is emphasized. Writing a Journal 学生写：Yesterday, I see a film. The film is Titanic. It is very good. … 教师读后批注：Really? I saw it too. But I saw it last year. I quite agree with you. It was really a wonderful film! 批改的特点： • 批注简短，但引起学生的注意和兴趣。 • 把重点放在情感的交流上，而不是语言的 形式上。 • 语言的改正采取隐性的指引。 Make your students happy! 两个写作课课例录像 1. 执信中学林爽老师写作课： http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMjI4Mzc0Mj Ey.html • Pw: scnu 2. 东莞邓宁霞老师写作课： http://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XMTgwMjk4O DY4.html • Pw: : scnu Integrated Skills (第一版Unit 12，第二版Unit 13) Topics for discussion: • Why should we integrate the four skills? • How can we integrate the four skills? • What are the implications for teaching? • What are the limitations of integrating the four skills? 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 Why should we integrate the four skills? • There are many situations in which we use more than one language skill. • For this reason alone, it is valuable to integrate the language skills, but there are other reasons why integration can enhance the students’ communication competence. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 Conditions for language learning Essential Exposure to a rich but comprehensible input of real spoken and written language in use Use of the language to do things (i.e. exchange meanings) Desirable Motivation to listen to and read the language and to speak and write it (i.e. to process and use the exposure) Instruction in language (i.e. chances to focus on form) Jane Willis. 1996. A Framework for Task-Based Leaning. 本页内容在网上课件中 Oxford: Longman 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 How can we integrate the four skills? • The easiest form of integration is from receptive to productive skills. • The second kind is complex integration. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 Oral Medium Written Medium Receptive listening → reading → Productive speaking writing 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 e.g.: My name is Jim Green. I live at 152 Jiangguo Street, not far from the centre of the city. I have lived there since 1990. I go to Number 14 Middle School. I’ve been a student there for nearly two and a half years. Now write about yourself in the same way. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 Reading activity: a poster giving information about an English club Oral activity: students make up a dialogue between the club secretary and a person who wants to join the club Writing activity: students complete a membership application form for the English club based on their partner’s information The information that the students get from the reading is useful in the oral activity, while the writing activity is based on 本页内容在网上课件中的Unit information from the oral activity. Twelve有讲解。 Implications • Focus on discourse • Adjusting/Adapting the textbook • Adjusting /Adapting the timetable 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 What are the limitations of integrating the four skills? • It is necessary for teachers to maintain an appropriate balance between integration and separation. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 Limitations of integrating the four skills Integrating the four skills: • can be demanding of the teacher (understanding discourse, using textbook flexibly); • can be time-consuming, requiring a lot of preparation. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 Conclusion • Simple integration: A receptive language skill serves as a model for a productive language skill. • Complex integration: a combination of activities involving different skills, linked thematically. Limitations of integration should not prevent teachers from using the integrative approach. 本页内容在网上课件中 的Unit Twelve有讲解。 关于期末考试 考试涉及的内容 • 考试覆盖《英语教 学法教程》（第二 版） 的主要内容: Units 1 —2 Units 6 —13 《英语教学法教程》 第二版 第一版 内容 Unit 1 Unit 1 Language and (language) Learning Unit 2 Unit 2 Communicative Principles and Activities（and Task-Based Language Teaching） Unit 6 Unit 5 Teaching Pronunciation Unit 7 Unit 6 Teaching Grammar Unit 8 Unit 7 Teaching Vocabulary Unit 9 Unit 8 Teaching Listening Unit 10 Unit 9 Teaching Speaking Unit 11 Unit 10 Teaching Reading Unit 12 Unit 11 Teaching Writing Unit 13 Unit 12 Integrated Skills 考试的题型 一、填空题（每空1分，共10分。） 二、配对题（12小题，每小题2分，共24分） 三、单项选择题（共46小题，每小题1分，共 46分） 四、写作题（撰写教案，20分） 填空题 （10小题，每小题1分） 例： 1. One of the general views on language is that l___ is a set of symbols. 2. In traditional pedagogy, listening and speaking were treated as skills different from what takes place in r__. 3. Introduction to phonetic rules should be a__ at the beginning stage of teaching pronunciation. 配对题 （12小题，每小题2分，共24分） 分A、B、C三组。例： A组： 11. A telephone conversation about business A. Identifying pictures, discovering missing information, and following directions 12. Ethic devotion, professional qualities and personal style of a teacher B. Process-oriented and conditionoriented 13. Functional communicative C. Informal, non-rehearsed, and activities interactive between 2 speakers 14. Language testing D. Multiple-choice question, dictation, and interview 单项选择题 （共50小题，每小题1分，共50分） 例： 23. Reflecting on how people learned a language, we can find that people learn languages in ____ways. A. different B. similar C. the same D. no 68. Because no textbooks are written for any particular class, it is necessary for teachers to ___ materials. A. throw away B. adapt C. use D. use no 写作题（撰写教案） 四、教案设计（20分） 具体内容放在本课程网上工作室的“资料共 享”栏的“复习资料 ”中，请同学们下载 该文件。 教案设计六点注意-1 避免离开语境，在上课的开头就孤立地教语法或词 汇。 • 上课的开头应该引入主题（Topic）。主题是指人 们交际中谈及的话题（如：天气、购物、求助、 爱好，等等），而不是某个语法点（如“定语从 句”、“形容词和副词得比较级”，等等）。 • 当然，有时候，我们可以在开头的时候用几个与 话题相关的单词来诱发学生对某个话题的讨论。 • 要点：离开语境教语法或词汇的做法不能接受， 不能及格。 教案设计六点注意-2 避免“剧本式”的教案。 • 避免在教案中使用像话剧剧本那样的教师与学生 之间的对话来构成教案的主体。也就是说，不要 像剧本那样把老师和学生的对话一句一句的写下 来。 • 剧本式“教案”不像是上课前准备的教案，因为 我们是无法预测上课的时候所讲的每一句话的， 更无法预测学生说的每一句话。 • 当然，我们可以在教案中设定教师要讲的一些话 （比如问一些问题），也可能预测学生大概会怎 样反应。 • 但无论如何，教案是不可能像话剧那样去规定现 在轮到谁谁谁该说话，谁谁谁该说什么话的。 因此。教案的主体部分 不要写成这种格式： T: How did you feel about the film yesterday? S: It was wonderful！（就算你知道学生喜欢 那部电影，你怎么可能知道学生就一定说 这句话呢？） T: … S: … … • 上面这种格式的教案就是“剧本式教案” 了。 教案设计六点注意-3 教案要让评卷的老师看得出你在上课的时候 是怎么做的。 • 教案的框架形式可以参照《英语教学法教 程》2006年第二版的第62-63页（或2000 年第一版的第32-33页）。 • 但参照上述框架时，要注意两点： 1）《英语教学法教程》中的教案例子只是一 个框架，你的教案要比这样的框架更加详 细。 例如： • 你要做一个游戏，你不能光在教案上写 “Play a game”就完了，你得让评卷的老师 知道这个游戏的大概玩法。 • 当然因为考试时间和篇幅的限制，你不可 能（也没必要）写得非常的详细。 • 因此你要写得简明扼要。对于一些人人皆 知的做法（比如A game of “Simon says”）， 就没有必要写出具体的做法了。 2）《英语教学法教程》中的有些教案例子有一个弊 病，就是在进入主题内容之前就先教所有的单词， 因此你要避免（这在第一点注意事项已经说明）。 • 要点：教学步骤（Teaching Procedures）要详细。 你要把你的做法通过你的文字告诉评卷的老师， 而不是让评卷老师去猜你心里想做什么。 • Put yourself in others’ shoes：设想一下你是另外 一个人，这个教案是别人写的，你能看懂教师要 做什么吗？ 4．教案中所要教的课本内容是指定的，并且指 定的内容已经提早给你们了。如果考试的时候 写的教案中的教学内容和指定的不符，教案将 得零分。 5．教案可以事先准备，但禁止把预先写好的教 案带入考场抄录，否则将被当作作弊对待。 6．你的教案不能与他人雷同。如有两个以上的 同学教案雷同，所有教案雷同者都将被判为零 分。你可以面对面或者通过电话和他人讨论应 该如何写好教案。但是，你不要和他人进行文 字上的交流。你要注意保护好自己的教案，不 要被他人“借来参考参考”。一“参考”，你 就零分了！ 答题卡填涂方法 1. 用黑色铅笔按规定涂黑学生代号和答案。 2. 在“系、班”栏中填入所在学习中心的简称。 3. 在“学生代号”栏填入本人学号中的“首9位+末2位”数 字。如：我的学号是W123456789000011，那么我填涂 12345678911 答题注意事项 • 考试时，客观题使用答题卡答题，因此， 请同学们务必带电脑考试专用铅笔和橡皮 擦。 • 主观题必须用黑色或蓝色油性或水性笔书 写。 Thank you! • 请务必看所有“导学课”的录像，到网上 工作室下载PPT，做“自测题”，并经常 访问工作室!