The Human Body
Introduction and Orientation
Opening Assignment: Organize the
following words into the fewest groups
Eyes,
Digestion,
Gluteus Maximus,
Urinary Bladder,
Movement,
Brain,
Absorption,
Stomach,
Respiration,
Reproduction,
Mitosis,
Gas Exchange,
Blood Formation,
Blood
Kidney,
Umbilicus,
Cells,
Excretion,
Lungs,
Support,
Answer
Anatomy / Structure
Physiology / Function
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•
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•
•
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•
Eyes
Stomach
Kidney
Umbilicus
Gluteus Maximus
Urinary Bladder
Cells
Lungs
Brain
Blood Vessels
Digestion
Respiration
Reproduction
Mitosis
Excretion
Movement
Gas Exchange
Absorption
Blood Formation
Support
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy
• Structures
• Shape of the body and its
parts
• Gross Anatomy can be seen
without a microscope
• Microscopic , too small to
be seen without a
microscope
Physiology
• How the body and its parts
work
• Structures determine the
function
• Functions are the processes
or jobs
Levels of Organization
11 Systems
Skeletal
Muscular
Cardiovascular
Nervous
Endocrine
Integument
Respiratory
Digestive
Urinary
Lymphatic /
Immune
Reproductive
Skeletal System
Structure
Bones, cartilage, ligaments
and joints
Function
• Support.
• Provides basis for
movement.
• Protection
• Hematopoiesis = Formation
of red blood cells happens
within long bones.
• Mineral storage.
Muscular System
Structure
Function
Skeletal muscles. Although
muscle is found in other systems
• Muscles contract
(shorten) and provide
movement.
• Support.
• Heat production
Cardiovascular System
Structure
Heart and blood vessels.
.
Function
• Uses blood as the carrier of
nutrients, wastes and
gasses
• Carries White Blood Cells
and chemicals that protect
the body
• Heart acts as a pump
Lymphatic / Immune System
Structure
Lymphatic vessels, Lymph nodes,
spleen tonsils, thymus, bone
marrow,
Function
• Recovers fluids for
tissue drainage
• Cleans the blood
• Houses cells that are
involved in immunity
Nervous System
Structure
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory
receptors
Function
• Responds to
external and
internal signals
• Coordinates
activities of other
organ systems.
Endocrine System
Structure
Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid,
Adrenals, Thymus, Pancreas,
Pineal, Ovary and Testes.
Function
• Directs long-term
changes using
hormones.
• Growth,
• Reproduction
• Food Use.
Integumentary System
Structure
Skin (largest organ) and
temperature, pressure and
pain receptors.
Function
•
•
•
•
Protect,
Cushion
Waterproofs
Excretes salt
and urea
• Regulates
temperature.
Respiratory System
Structure
Nasal passage, pharynx, larynx,
trachea, bronchi, lungs
Function
• Delivery of
air to sites
where gas
exchange
takes place
Digestive System
Structure
• oral cavity,
• esophagus
• stomach
• small
• large intestines
• rectum
• liver
• pancreas
Function
Processing food, absorption of
organic nutrients, minerals
vitamins and water
Urinary System
Structure
Kidneys, ureters, bladder,
urethra.
Function
• Excretes nitrogencontaining waste
(forms when protein
is broken down)
Urea and Uric Acid
• Maintains water and
salt balance
• Controls pH of the
blood
Reproductive System
Structure
• M=Testes
(produce sperm),
Scrotum, Penis
accessory glands
and duct system
• F=Ovary Produce
eggs), Uterine
tubes, Uterus,
Vagina
Function
Production of sex cells and
hormones to produce
offspring.
8 Life Functions
• Boundaries: Inside is
separate from
outside…every cell has a
membrane.
• Movement: We move
and our food moves
through us.
• Responsiveness: Sense
changes and react.
• Digestion: Breaking down
of food to be absorbed by
blood.
• Metabolism: All chemical
reactions in the body.
Depends on the Digestive
and Respiratory systems
for nutrients and oxygen
but it is regulated by the
hormones of the
Endocrine system.
• Excretion: Removing
waste
• Reproduction:
Production of offspring
• Growth: Increase in size.
Homeostasis
• Stable internal
conditions
• Homeostatic
Control
Mechanisms
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
• Shuts off original
stimulus like home
thermostat.
• Our body has a lot of
these: Water,
temperature, sugar,
fight or flight, muscles
for balance. Constant
state of adjustment.
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
• Increases the
original
stimulus.
Blood clotting
and birth of
baby.
Anatomical Position
• Body erect, feet
parallel, arms at
sides palms
forward. Use the
face of the clock
to describe
location
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