EMC Compatibility in Europe John Molyneux Senior Consultant Approvals LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions It is almost impossible to separate the demonstration of electromagnetic compatibility from the demonstration of safety. This is because, although systems interfering with each-other can be a nuisance it is only when they affect safety that the costs of incompatibility become unacceptable. Hence much of the process is primarily concerned with Safety. Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions All respondents from EU have Implemented Directives In most cases this has had the effect of divorcing the technical and procedural processes Scope of EMC is ill defined, especially in high level documents Many aspects of EMC are omitted or are considered to be ‘somebody else’s problem’ Most Countries have particular concerns and concentrate on these Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions Many local standards are in a state of flux Several Respondents changed local requirements, or revised local standards during the course of this study Newer lines are migrating to ERTMS Newer Equipment sometimes lies outside existing standards e.g. Wi-Fi Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions EN standards ……. A Common Ground? 50121 Railway applications —Electromagnetic compatibility between parts of the railway system and the outside world. 50128 Railway applications —Communications, signalling and processing systems — Software 50129 Railway applications —Communication, signalling and processing systems —Safety for signalling 50163 Railway applications — Supply voltages of traction systems Describes and defines supply systems and variations Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions EN standards ……. A Common Ground? 50238 Railway applications —Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems- 1)generic methodologies; 2) Track Circuits 3) Axle counters. 50367 Railway applications —Current collection systems —Indirectly affects EMC as the sliding contact is a major source of emissions. 50388 Railway applications — Power supply and rolling stock —Technical criteria pertaining to protection, operation and testing. 50500 Measurement procedures and limits to be applied to the evaluation of human exposure to magnetic fields. Standards are not Comprehensive Neither are they Universally Applicable Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions Railways have long lifetimes 30-50 years (with refurbishment) Cost of scrapping older systems just for ease of EMC demonstration is prohibitive and does not make economic sense It is therefore a fact of life that all countries will have to keep their older EMC methods for some considerable time. Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Observations and Conclusions Although not mandatory, the Infrastructure manager still plays a large part in the approval process for new rolling stock. The process approvals bodies do not generally have the detailed technical knowledge to assess systems within their structure. Detailed Technical Knowledge is being divested to third parties who may only have limited scope within the process Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Train Detection Possible the most critical part of EMC from a rolling stock perspective. It is also the most technically Diverse Primarily conducted Interference into track Solution……….Measure the interference and apply a limit Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL The Universal Gabarit Overall Gabarit for all train detection 1000 Harmonic Current Amps RMS 100 10 1 0.1 Examination from Traction Point of View shows that this is Not a Credible Way Forward. 0.01 0.001 1 10 100 1000 Frequency Hz Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL 10000 100000 Train Detection Until ERTMS level 3 is Universally Implemented Limit Systems on New Lines to Preferred Types What about New Types…… How are they Qualified. Is this anti-competitive?..... Does it contravene free market principles Dose it discourage Research and Innovation? Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Train Detection Until ERTMS level 3 is Universally Implemented Use a common method of measurement, analysis and data recording according to EN50238 technical appendices Overhead wire A Overhead wire B Third Rail AC Infrastructure A DC Infrastructure Open Points on the interpretation of some clauses…. How many tests or how much testing….. environment….. location Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Train Detection Until ERTMS level 3 is Universally Implemented Still Not a Universal Solution as there are Open Points on the interpretation, nature and analysis of Use a common method of measurement, analysis and data recording transient phenomena Limit Systems on New Lines to Preferred Types according to EN50238 technical appendices Re-analyse test data to show compatibility within different countries Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Lineside Systems No universally applicable limits or methodologies Coupling is magnetic or capacitive and is highly sensitive to geometry Sheer Number of possible interactions is massive and complex. Considered to be outside the scope of Rolling Stock Compatibility by some but not part of the Command and Control system either. Some common ground in the determination of psophometric current Many-long range systems are migrating to optical fibre Voice communications are increasingly becoming the minority traffic. Digital communications operate at higher frequencies and have different problems. Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Energy Systems Energy Systems are generally well covered by International Standards Local limits on harmonic distortion are defined by the generating authority and hence are outside the control of the Railway. Rolling stock will still have to be designed to comply with the generating authority’s policy Considered to be outside the scope of Rolling Stock Compatibility by some . The infrastructure should be designed to be tolerant to the train’s demand and regeneration Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Radio Frequency Systems EN 50121 seems to be an almost Universal standard for Radio Frequency Systems However EN 50121 does not give comprehensive frequency coverage on all aspects and, in particular, does not cover intentional transmitters Individual requirements for train communications are contained within the CCS TSI Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Other Systems Included because of synergy EN 50121 is required under The EMC directive however more than a third of the respondents stated that the EMC directive was not used in their rolling stock compatibility case. Although the EMF directive is not yet in force it is due to come in force soon. Compatibility with human beings will need to be considered in any safety submission Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Summary This project has documented the details of the EMC demonstration process that are of most concern within each member state. It is believed that the study provides a good description of the full vertical scope of the process, from legislative mandates through methods to detailed technical requirements of the EMC demonstration. However it is not fully comprehensive due to the difficulties in obtaining the wide scope of information required in an accessible form. Further consolidation of the methods at the detail stages may be beneficial. Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Summary The details of the technical assessment of electromagnetic compatibility across the member states of the European railway area are complex and different. However the underlying technical assessment methods, based on common physics, are similar. The degree of state involvement in the processes is very varied : from purely documentary to detailed technical involvement. The documentation processes, to comply with the directives are in a much more advanced state than the technical processes. Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL Summary The authors would like to thank all those members and representatives from the member states who have contributed to this project Austria Finland Italy Poland Switzerland Belgium France Latvia Portugal United Kingdom Bulgaria Germany Lithuania Romania Czech Republic Greece Luxembourg Slovakia Denmark Hungary Netherlands Spain Estonia Ireland Norway Sweden Approvals :Conformance LLOYD’S REGISTER RAIL For more information, please contact: Lloyd’s Register Rail Preston Technology Centre Unit G09 Marsh Lane Preston Lancashire PR1 8UQ T +44 (0)1772 272 716 F +44 (0)1772 888 673 E email@example.com CHANGE TITLE IN SLIDE MASTER LLOYD’S REGISTER (amend as req.) 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