Chapter 9 Section 1 The Industrial Revolution Spreads

Chapter 9 Section 1
The Industrial Revolution Spreads
3rd Period
October 13th, 2011
Nations Race to Industrialize (298-300)
Germany and France and the United States had more
abundant supplies of coal, iron and other resources then
Britain did.
They also had the advantage of following Britain's lead.
Robert Fulton powered his steam boat with one of James
Watts steam engine.
By 1900s, the United States was manufacturing about 30
percent of the worlds industrial goods, surpassing Britain
as the leading industrial nation.
Uneven Development (298-300)
Although Russia did have resources, social and
political conditions slowed its economic
Only in the 1800s, more then 100 years after
Britain, did the Russian lumber toward
Although Japan lacked many basic resources, it
industrialized rapidly after 1868 because of a
political revolution that made modernization a
Effects of Industrialization (300)
1900, Britain underwent social changes, such as rapid
Men, women and children worked long hours.
The factory produced huge quantities of new goods at
lower prices. Demand for goods created jobs
Politics changed as leaders had to meet the demands of
an industrial society
At a technological and economic advantage the Western
powers came to dominate the world.
Steel Production and the Bessemer
Process (300-301)
American inventor William Kelly and British engineer
Henry Bessemer developed new process for making
steel from iron. In 1856 Bessemer patented the process
Bessemer made it lighter, harder and more durable then
iron so it could be cheaply produced.
Steel became the major material.
In 1880, the average German steel mill produced less
then 5 million metric tons of steel a year.
In 1910, it reached nearly 15 million metric tons
Steel Production and the Bessemer
Process (300-301)
Effects of Industrialization (300)
Innovations in Chemistry (301)
Chemist created items from aspirin to soaps and perfume. Newly
developed fertilizers increased food production. Alfred Nobel
invented dynamite a safer explosive used for both construction and
Electric Power Replaces Steam (301)
Electricity replaced steam as the dominant source of energy.
Michael Faraday invented the Dynamo an electric generator.
Thomas Edison invented the incandescent light bulb, which
allowed people to operate after dark.
New Methods of Production (301-302)
Interchangeable Parts were identical parts that could be used in
place of another. By the early 1900s, manufactures had introduced
another new method of production. The Assembly Line.
The Automobile Age Begins (302)
The transportation
revolution took a new
turn when a German
engineer, Nikolaus Otto
invented a gasoline
powered internal
combustion engine.
In 1886, Karl Benz
received a patient for the
first automobile, which
had three wheels.
Henry Ford, America took
over the massproduction of cars after
starting the assembly
Airplane Takes Flight (302)
The internal
combustion engine
powered more
than cars, it could
power airplanes.
Orville and Wilbur
wright designed
the first airplanes.
Though it only flew
for a few seconds
it was a big
Rapid Communication (302-303)
American inventor Samuel
F.B. Morse developed the
In 1876 the Scottish born
American inventor Alexander
Graham Bell patented the
An Italian pioneer Guglielmo
Marconi invented the radio.
The radio would become a
corner stone of today's global
communications network.
Rise of Big Business (303)
To get the needed capital,
owners sold stock- or shares in
their companies
 large scale companies such as
steel foundries, needed so much
capital that they sold hundred of
thousands of shares.
 These businesses formed giant
corporationsBusinesses that are owned by
many investors who buy shares of
 With large amounts of capital
corporations could expand into
many areas.
Move Toward Monopolies (303-304)
Powerful business
leaders created
monopolies for huge
corporations that
controlled entire
In Germany Alfred Krupp
inherited a steel
He made supply lines or
raw materials that fed the
steel business.
Move Toward Regulation (304)
A rise in big businesses
and the creation of such
good wealth created
Some people saw that
Krupp and Rockefeller as
captains of industry.
They destroyed there
competition, critically
argued, they damaged
the free-enterprise