Higher Education Information Management

Higher Education Information
Sudhanshu Bhushan
Steps in Information Management
(i) agency of collection
(ii) data capture format and coverage of data
(iii) process of collection
(iv) compilation of data
(v) tabulation of data
(vi) analysis and presentation of information
(vii) publication of information
• ES (1) C, ‘Numerical Data of Institutions for Higher Education’ –
it covers enrolment on general, Professional and (other) higher
education streams and also enrolment by type of institutions
• ES (II) C, ‘Financial Data of Institutions for Higher Education’ –
data includes recurring and non-recurring income and
expenditure procured by institution of higher education
managed by Universities, Local Bodies, Central/State
Governments and Private(Unaided) bodies.
• ES (III) C, ‘ Examination Results (Higher Education)’- Data
must include examination results of boys and girls appearing
and passing out in General education, and Professional and
other education, which includes both degrees and diplomas.
• ES (IV) C, ‘ Numerical Data of Institution for Higher Education’it covers number of institutions in the State, enrolment by the
type of institution, number of teachers, type of management in
running the institution for SC and ST
University Grants Commission
• Format A (University Teaching Departments): deals with
information about the University/institutions on students
enrolment (general education, professional courses and other
educational courses), details of courses offered, gender-wise
students enrolment in general and professional courses
designation –wise details of teaching staff, information about
non-teaching staff, number of students passed and appeared in
examination and income and expenditure (recurring and nonrecurring) incurred.
• Format B-AC (Affiliated Colleges): deals with courses offered by
the Colleges, designation-wise and subject-wise teaching staff,
subject-wise break up of students enrolment for both regular
and self-financing courses, drop-out in student’s enrolment,
course details and foreign students studying in Colleges.
• Format- Library : deals with library Statistics of the
University Teaching Departments and University
• Format- Exam : deals with examination results of
• Format I/II –Doctorate Degrees Awarded
• Format –Directory of professors
• Format IS-Finance : statistical information on financial
parameters of the Institute of Higher Education
• Format IS- Foreign students : No of foreign students on
rolls in UTD/UC/CC and affiliated Colleges (AC)
• Format –List of Colleges: List of Colleges recognised by
University, list of colleges disaffiliated by university and
district-wise Colleges
• Format- Vacant Positions in Universities/Institutions
• The Census definition of higher education
embraces all types of education – public as well
as private, distant, certificate, diploma and
degree. College education includes graduate
and above. Vocational education includes all
technical and professional courses – degree,
diploma and certificate. The relevant tables
pertaining to population attending educational
institutions by type are published in C Series:
Social and Cultural Statistics.
• NSS provide data on higher education, at times
directly through dedicated reports on education
(42nd and 52nd rounds) and also through
rounds on employment and unemployment 38th
(1983), 43rd (1987-88), 50th (1993-94), 55th
(1999-2000) rounds that provide educational
profile and enrolment in higher education. The
55th and 61st rounds provide information both
on educational attainment and current
attendance. All the rounds are not strictly
Process of Collection of Data
• MHRD - the ES forms are distributed to all
State/UT’s Directorate of Education.
• State/UT’s Directorate of Education collects
information from recognised institutions of higher
education through another format called CF -1
and CF -2
• In the case of UGC the collection of data from
higher education institutions is made directly
through specified formats made available to
these institutions.
Publication of Information
• MHRD: publishes very selective information on
enrolment. Gender wise and aggregate, SC & ST
enrolment for all states refers to Ph D, MA, M Sc., M
Com., BA, B Sc., B Com., Technical, Medical, Teachers
Training College and other.
• Information also pertains to number of teachers and PTR
in higher education. Besides information on foreign
students studying in India and Indian students studying
in foreign countries are presented.
• All the information from data capture format is not
presented. The intake in higher education, year-wise
enrolment at graduation and post graduation is not
given. As a result the transition of students and internal
efficiency is not known.
Publication of Information –
• UGC publishes annual report and provides state
level information on stage wise enrolment in
university departments/university colleges and
affiliated colleges. It also provides faculty wise
enrolment at the aggregate level only. It gives
information on the distribution of teaching staff
by designation in university
departments/university colleges and affiliated
colleges. Further the number of doctorates
awarded is recorded in the annual report of
Provisional Nature of SES Data
• It is so because in most of the cases the
data that is supposed to reach the
Statistical Division of the Department of
Higher education, MHRD do not reach on
time and in some cases it does not reach
at all.
Some Questions
• what is the source of collecting information
contained in SES? Is the MHRD
compelled to use other sources of
information? What those sources of
information are? In any case non
compliance of data is a serious issue that
impedes gravely the higher education
policy, planning and management.
Changing Definition and Methodology
in Calculating Ratios:
• It is remarkable to note that The ‘Open and Distance
Learning’ was not included in total higher education till
SES 2003-04. In SES 2004-05 it was included in
others and finally included in total higher education
enrolment. The “others” as a category show 3 million
enrolments out of 11.7 million enrolments in 2004-05.
It shows now an inflated GER of 9.7% in 2004-05.
M.B.A enrolment is not included at all on ground of
lack of availability of data. Thus curious reasons lead
to changes in the concept of higher education.
Besides, the methodology in calculating ratios in the
SES has also not been clearly specified and
educational indicators also keep changing according
to the need.
University Grants Commission
• Although UGC claims to receive 60 – 70% data directly
from Universities and Colleges every year on the aforesaid
formats, the other problems arising out of manual
reporting, namely, delay in collection, vulnerability and
inaccuracy of data hold good in the case of UGC as well.
There are some defaulting Universities/ Institutions that is
reluctant to share information in spite of the fact that it is
mandatory for Universities to furnish information. Thus non
compliance of information holds good in case of UGC, too.
It was reported that obsolete facilities and shortage of
technically skilled computer maintenance operator is the
cause of delay. The problem, therefore, is that UGC even
though collects lot of data, it finds very difficult to provide
all tabulated information annually. It finally publishes very
narrow set of information.
Dilemmas of Unreliable Data on
11th Plan
• On the basis of SES the enrolment in higher
education worked out to 91.4 lakhs (86 lakhs in
General and 5.3 lakhs in Technical) in 2001. The
corresponding figure for NSS and Census
worked out to 115.3 lakhs (88.5 lakhs in general
and 27.1 lakhs in technical/vocational) and
160.9 lakhs (144.3 lakhs in general and 16.6
lakhs in technical, degree, diploma and
certificate) in 2001. Such variation in the size of
enrolment from the three sources poses
problems in enrolment projection.
• The important point to note is that
inadequate and non comparable data
base creates difficulty in planning. There
were various other issues as well. The non
availability of information on enrolment in
terms of management posed another
problem of estimating the plan for
Features of an Efficient Data Management System
Online Data Management and Information System
Data Capture Format
all the parameters to be included
. Codes, wherever possible, should be provided so that maximum
number of tables may be generated with the given command.
As far as possible the institutions should be supplied the data
capture format directly to fill the information. For example colleges
should fill the DCF and the authentication of the data should be
done by the university. After the data is authenticated and
information is submitted to the central agency, the data should be
secured and no alteration should be possible in the data.
DCF should define the terms used in the format clearly.
Training to Fill the DCF
To manage the data efficiently, it is necessary that DCF be filled
without any ambiguity.
At the level of university the training should be provided to all the
persons who are in charge of data in respective colleges or
university departments.
Periodic workshops should be conducted to redress any problems
encountered in the management of data.
The revamping of higher education
management system
shift from manual to online data management through electronic data capture format.
There shall be a nodal agency at the center which will be responsible to design the
DCF and the format will be downloaded by the institution of higher education.
Nodal agency shall be responsible for providing any support to the university with
respect to the data capture format. Nodal agency will receive the authenticated DCF
from the university
and will be responsible for publication of report containing all the information - nation
level, state level and university level reports will be generated.
As the universities shall be the main data collection center, it is necessary that
university’s statistical wing is fully computerized.
The maladies of higher education information system can be best addressed if as
nodal agency a National Information Centre for Higher Education can be created. It
would not only help in integrating data from multiple sources but would also provide
state policymakers and analysts timely and accurate data and information that are
useful in making sound higher education policy decisions. The National Information
Centre can be also useful to provide contextual information, for each measure there
can be links for additional information. Such solution is already available in some
developed countries like U.S.A. The Centre will be user-friendly but to avoid misuse
of data and information its access should be restricted by membership. All
institutions, state agencies of higher education and State and central level policymakers should be eligible to become members. Such visions can be only made
practicable when required funding is available to develop the infrastructure and
maintain its sustainability and long-term operation.
International Standard Classification of
Education (ISCED 1997)
• 4. Post Secondary Non Tertiary-6 months to two
year duration
• 5.First stage of Tertiary Education
• 5A Theoretical, intended to provide qualification
for entry into advanced research or profession
with high skill requirement, year duration min.3
• 5B more practical/technical/occupation specific,
year duration min.2 years
• 6. Second stage of Tertiary Education (leading to
advanced research qualification)
Output Indicators
Access & Participation- gender, social, muslim, PH –
levels of tertiary education, course and faculty wise,
management, district, state and university wise
Net Intake as proportion of Eligibles
Net Intake as proportion of population of entrance age
Entry Ratio as proportion of
Gross Enrolment Ratio
Gross Graduation Ratio
Gender parity
Pass percentage
Drop out
Transition rate
Mobility of foreign students