Electric mobility in future energy systems


The role of electric mobility in future Energy Systems

Dr. ir. Zofia Lukszo

With collaboration with dr. Remco Verzijlbergh

Section Energy and Industry

Technology, Policy and Management

@: Z.Lukszo@tudelft.nl

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• Why electric mobility?

• Responsive demand

• Are the goals of many actors involved the same?

• What about the environment?

• Why EVs can be compared to cold storage warehouses?

• What can we learn from looking at different price scenario’s?

• Future work

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Future energy systems

Old schedule generation to meet demand

New schedule demand to meet generation e.g. electric mobility

Electric mobility

How can electric mobility contribute to a more sustainable transportation & electrical power system and on the same time align the interests of its relevant actors?

See: Remco Verzijlbergh, The Power of Electric Vehicles,

PhD Thesis TU Delft, 2013, http://repository.tudelft.nl/

Why electric mobility - CO

2 air quality, noise polluttion emission

Energy usage households +/- 10 kWh









Energy demand (kWh/day)

Power sector complex socio-technical system

Standard Household Profile

Estimation of the expected energy usage of EVs

Data from Mobility Research Netherlands

Average: ~34 km

~ 90% < 100km

Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, “Mobiliteitsonderzoek Nederland (in Dutch)”

Available: www.mobiliteitsonderzoeknederland.nl

Charging scenario's and network load

Based on real life data

Network load:100 houses and 50 EVs

Price control

Load Control

Imbalance Control

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Separate EV demand profiles

Electric mobility in a city

– city of Utrecht

Load flow analysis shows:

• 10% electric mobility 

24% overloaded

• Reference case (merely organic growth)

 19% overloaded

See E.J. Kleiwegt , Electric Mobility: on the Road to Energy Transition:

A technical and actor assessment of social costs of electric mobility , Master Thesis, TU Delft, 2011 http://repository.tudelft.nl/

Example – city of Utrecht

Use calculations for critical component map

Green / Yellow /

Red locations for installing charging stations

Merit order vs emission – two cases

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2 emissions of EV charging as a function of CO

2 price




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Dispatch profiles for different vehicles scenarios

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Charging strategy based on predicted price

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Negative price?

Conventional, wind and solar power and spot prices for the German system on

June 16th


Responsive demand – cold storage

Old schedule generation to meet demand

New schedule demand to meet generation e.g. with a cold storage warehouse

Matching renewable energy and demand response through price

System model:

• Cold store has PV generation on site

• PV production known in advance

• Pays price C in

(t) for energy, receives C

• Temperature upper bound T max out


Goal: Investigate relations between demand response strategy of a cold store and electricity prices & Evaluate different pricing regimes on optimal energy use

Physical model of cold store

Heat balance

Incoming heat

Outgoing heat

Resulting equation for T dynamics

Discretized in time

System model

• Cold store has PV generation on site

• PV production known in advance

• Pays price C in

(t) for energy, receives C out


• Temperature upper bound T max

Optimization formulation

Objective function constraints

Compare cold store with EV optimization problem

Optimization problem

State dynamics

Price scenarios

A: flat tariff

B: flat double tariff

C: day-night tariff

D: APX based real time tariff

E: APX based real time tariff, high solar penetration


• Optimal cooling trajectory depends strongly on tariff structure.

• Local use of PV energy depends on tariffs

• Most 'value' of control in case with high solar penetration.

• The effective use of demand response requires the right tariff structure

New plans

NWO URSES - CaPP Project

• Design, Management and Control Systems for multimodal, detachable decentral sustainable energy systems

• Car as Power Plant as a multi-modal system (power, transport, gas/hydrogen, heat)

• ICT and business models for CaPP

• Detachable decentral = fuel cell cars

NWO URSES – CaPP Project

• design, assess and analyse the fuel cell car as power plant (CaPP) in integrated transport and energy systems

• investigate and design robust control systems of CaPPbased smart energy systems

• explore effective incentive and organizational structures for the emergence of CaPP integrated energy and transport systems

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PhD wanted!


Most urgent question

• How to reduce uncertainty for actors in the energy chain by developing the science and tools that are needed for smart energy systems?

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