The Economics Behind Weather and Climate Proofing Cities Zach Perry College of Arts and Sciences Major: Economics Minors: Computer and Information Science, History Presentation Outline • Extreme weather and climate events that effect cities • Brief history of weather proofing • Monetary impact of these events • Current weather/climate proofing examples • Economic and social reasons for weatherproofing • The future of weather/climate proofing What do We Weather/Climate Proof For? • Extreme weather events: ▫ Tornados, Hurricanes, Blizzards, heavy rain, drought etc. • Small scale weather events ▫ Light rain, lighting, snowstorms, small flooding, wind • Large Scale Climate Changes ▫ Specifically global warming trends ▫ Not as easy to predict and prepare for History of Weather Proofing • Weather proofing began with water proofing a boats, and homes in ancient times • Weather proofing has developed into two main parts • For most of history focus was on weather proofing homes, and protecting agriculture • Focus has shifted to cities and densely populated areas The Cost of Weather/Climate Events • https://www.youtube.com/wa tch?v=Adh4eNhpJYI • Weather causes high repair costs in short run, and far reaching impacts in the long run • Climate impacts are not always as clear ▫ High water overwhelms water treatment facilities ▫ Extreme cold or heat Developed vs. Undeveloped Countries • Developed ▫ High levels of monetary loss due to repair costs ▫ Economic infrastructure allows for long term recovery ▫ Typical focus is on large scale weather proofing • Undeveloped ▫ Repair costs are typically low ▫ Very difficult to recover from disasters and often effects can last years ▫ Focus is typically on small scale weather proofing Small Scale Weather/Climate Proofing • Small scale refers to efforts made by individuals ▫ Typically homeowners ▫ Often financed privately ▫ Less expensive • Examples ▫ Waterproofing a home or business ▫ Tornado shelters or cellars ▫ Irrigation techniques to protect fields against flooding Raised land to protect against flooding Large Scale Weather/Climate Proofing • Large scale weather and climate proofing is often taken on by governments or large private institutions • Increases protection and general welfare of a large group of individuals • Aim is to make entire areas or cities prepared for weather and climate events Examples • Houses designed to float in Lower 9th Ward of New Orleans • Hurricane-proof buildings near the Gulf and Atlantic • Large Skyscrapers and bridges ▫ Earthquakes ▫ High Winds • Levees and Flood Gates New Orleans Float homes Hurricane Proof Buildings Why weather/climate proof? • Long-term cost savings: ▫ Less damage from weather events • New design and construction creates jobs and spurs economic growth • Proofing can not always protect property but often can save lives ▫ Tornado shelters • Environmental side effect ▫ Weather/Climate proofed buildings are often also eco friendly Effectiveness of Weather/Climate Proofing • Monetary effectiveness varies with type ▫ Systems in place for flooding are much more effective at preventing damage compared to tornados • Infrastructure changes in the Philippines expected to return 5 times in loss prevention • Federal spending on levees pays for itself six times over ▫ American Society of Civil Engineers • 2005 FEMA Study: ▫ $1 in grants saved taxpayers $3.65 in avoided costs. • 2014 Study ▫ Every $1 spent on prevention leads to $4 plus in savings How to Achieve Effective Weather/ Climate Proofing • Federal, state or local building projects • Subsidies or rebates to encourage the building of eco friendly and weather proofed buildings • Taxes on buildings and projects that do not meet a standard • Charitable efforts • Educational outreach • Research into at risk areas Future Advances and Technologies • Large focus is on the warming trends and anticipated climate impacts ▫ i.e. Climate Proofing • The World Bank has become increasingly invested in future climate proofing ▫ The Netherlands is the leader in weatherproofing • Examples: ▫ Green Roofs in cities ▫ Movable river closing structures ▫ Infrastructure changes Rendering of Green Roof Designs Works Cited • http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2013-05-07/cities-need-the-resilience-to-facefuture-sandys • http://www.aljazeera.com/weather/2012/04/201241293726978780.html • http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/docs/smith-and-katz-2013.pdf • http://www.factor-tech.com/future-cities/4439-living-roofs-the-key-to-climate-proofingcities-of-the-future/ • http://makeitright.org/where-we-work/new-orleans/ • http://www.deltechomes.com/our-homes/hurricane-resistance/ • http://science.howstuffworks.com/engineering/structural/smart-structure.htm • http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c10/e5-09-03-02.pdf • http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/27/us/new-orleans-katrina-sites/ • http://www.ryot.org/oxfam-food-for-all-campaign-uses-images-of-natural-beauty-todraw-attention-to-hunger-crisis-in-africa/65994 • http://wwf.panda.org/wwf_news/?201796/Climate-proofing-tomorrows-cities-today • http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/12/03/disaster-economics • http://paidfromsavings.com/fast-company-fact-green-manufacturing-helps-stallingeconomy/ • http://www.agriculturesnetwork.org/magazines/global/searching-synergy/lowlandfarming Questions?