Meaning Egalitarianism is an ideology, principle or doctrine referring to equal rights, benefits and opportunities or equal treatment for all citizens of a society. It is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights. . Need for Egalitarianism Closed and heterogeneous Indian society Multiple complexities and divisions Discrimination on the basis of - Sex, - Caste, - Religion and - Disability. Need for Egalitarianism Patriarchal society, Women face discrimination Reflected in the sex ratio & low literacy levels caste system – traditional society Leads to severe oppression and segregation of the lower castes Need for Egalitarianism Discrimination based on cultural norms, beliefs, practices and customs deriving its legitimacy from the principles of caste system and religion. Limits access to various freedoms, including education Need for Egalitarianism Disability is another area which has experienced low priority in the service sector. Disabled people’s needs are not addressed in our society. Inclusive education has not become a reality yet. Need for Egalitarianism Discrimination based on the religion of an individual cuts across gender, caste/tribe, class and disability. Marginalisation of minorities Under-represented in nation-building activities Impact 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Deprivation Poverty and ignorance Poor, pathetic living conditions Religious exploitation and superstition Identity crisis, isolation No human dignity No dignity of labour Low status Mental block Impact 10. Humiliation 11. Dependency syndrome 12. Inferiority complex 13. Communication gap 14. Escapism 15. We and they feeling 16. Suspicion 17. Poor performance 18. Crisis and conflict Solution Needed a higher platform to have equal access The Constitution of India - the Part III, - Fundamental Rights, made powerful provisions to combat all forms of discrimination. Solution Identifying under-represented groups. Caste, gender, religion, state of domicile (N-E States, Bihar and U P are under-represented), rural people, etc. Reservations intended to increase the social diversity in campuses and workplaces Lowering the entry criteria for certain identifiable groups that are grossly under-represented Reservation criteria Gender (around 30% of seats are reserved for females in many institutions). Sons/Daughters/Grandsons/Grand daughters of Freedom Fighters. Physically handicapped. Sports personalities. Non-Resident Indians (NRIs). Candidates sponsored by various organisations. Those who have served in the armed forces(ex-serviceman quota). Dependants of armed forces personnel killed in action. Repatriates. Those born from inter-caste marriages. Widows and deserted women. Relaxations The minimum high school marks criteria are relaxed for reserved seats. For example in IIT JEE reserved category candidates scoring about 65% of the last admitted general category candidate are directly offered admission. Candidates not meeting this cutoff but scoring as low as half of this are offered admission to a one year preparatory course. Age – Relaxation of upper age limit is 3 years for OBC candidates, 5 years for SC, ST candidates and 10 years for physically challenged candidates. Fees, Hostel Room Rent etc Tuition fees and room rent is waived. 50% of the scholarships are reserved for SC/ST and OBC candidates In each stream, 25% of scholarships are reserved for girl students and 10% for physically challenged candidates. Role of Education The education system can play positive interventionist role in the Empowerment of people and Removal of all kinds of biases which are man-made. 1. Teachers can inculcate the ideas and the need for non-discrimination on the basis of sex, caste, religion, disability and also briefly explain racism. 2. Teachers can foster in children equality, promote and strengthen the constitutional culture/spirit and stability 3. To promote equality, an awareness of the inherent equality of all can be created through various curricular areas. 4. Education can motivate the younger generation for international cooperation and peaceful co-existence Education leads to the development of new values through new design of curricula and text books, the training and orientation of teachers, decision makers and administrators and active involvement of educational institutions. 6. The curriculum, through its content and process should reflect the constitutional obligations 7. Schools can play an important role in preparing the younger generation for assuming their roles as constructive and responsible citizens. 5. For SCs & STs Teachers can help to remove prejudices and complexes transmitted through the social environment and accident of birth. 9. Schools can carry out all educational programs in strict conformity with secular values. 10. Teachers can organize various co-curricular activities like debates, essays, street plays on secular themes like human dignity and values 11. Administrative staff can be sensitized 12. Education can strengthen the view that whole world is one family. 8. For Women 13. Teachers can give examples and illustrations showing women in different roles with different responsibilities 14. Teachers can depict men and women in shared roles through visual aids, puppets etc 15. Teachers can invite women writers, artists, musicians to talk with the students or give performance 16. Teachers can counter the prejudices that may be found in the textbooks 17. Teachers can practice gender equality in the classroom 18. Textbooks can be made free of gender bias and sex stereotypes 19. Teachers can ensure gender equality through curriculum transaction - their teaching should - be gender bias free and - portray boys and girls in shared roles - also women excelling in different walks of life For Children with Disabilities 20. Schools should admit all types of disabled children irrespective of the extent of disability 21. Teachers should have basic general knowledge about the education of children with disabilities 22. Teachers should be able to modify teaching – learning strategies to teach children with disabilities 23. Schools should provide support material such as aids, appliances and books 24. Schools should arrange for specialist teacher support if possible 25. The need for non-discrimination should be taught to young children so that the disability does not become a handicap. 26. Young non-disabled children should be taught that disabled children are children first and disabled next.