EBD: Emotional Behavioral Disorder By: Paul “Matt” Chonka For: EDSP 6644 Catherine Hawes, MA Definition An emotional and behavioral disorder is an emotional disability characterized by the following: (i) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and/or teachers. For preschool-age children, this would include other care providers. (ii) An inability to learn which cannot be adequately explained by intellectual, sensory or health factors. (iii) Consistent or chronic inappropriate type of behavior or feelings under normal conditions. (iv) Displayed pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (v) Displayed tendency to develop physical symptoms, pains or unreasonable fears associated with personal or school problems. (National Association of Special Education Teachers, 2007) Prevalence Nearly 464,000 students 6–21 years of age in the United States received services for emotional or behavioral disabilities in the 2006-2007 school year This was 0.9% of all students with disabilities in U.S. schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2009) Misconceptions & Implications Intelligence and achievement - Contrary to popular myth, most children with emotional and behavioral disorders are not bright, intellectually above-average children who are simply bored with their surroundings. Many children score in the slow learner or mildly mentally retarded range on IQ tests Implications Two thirds could not pass competency exams for their grade level These children have the lowest grade point average of any group of students with disabilities. Forty-four percent failed one or more courses in their most recent school year. They have a higher absenteeism rate than any other disability category (missing an average of 18 days of school per year). Forty-eight percent drop out of high school, compared with 30% of all students with disabilities and 24% of all high school students. Over 50% are not employed within 2 years of exiting school. (Enloe, 2009) Behavioral Characteristics Social skills and interpersonal relationships - Many students with emotional and behavioral disorders often experience great difficulty in making and keeping friends. Antisocial behavior - Out of seat, runs around the room, disturbs peers, hits or fights, ignores the teacher, complains excessively, steals, destroys property, argues, distorts the truth, and so forth. Withdrawn behavior - They retreat into day dreaming, are fearful of things without reason, frequently complain of being sick or hurt, and go into deep bouts of depression. Manifestations of behavior 1. Environmental conflicts: aggression and/or self-injurious behavior such as fighting, bullying, violating rules, overactive, impulsive, stealing, truancy, and other socially maladjusted behaviors. 2. Personal disturbances: anxiety disorders such as crying and statements of worry. The student may withdraw socially. In addition, the student may exhibit excessive fear and anxiety. 3. Academic deficits in basic academic skills and educational achievement. Typically, the student performs below expected grade level. 4. Social deficits: students are unpopular and are actively rejected by their peers. 5. Irresponsibility: irresponsibility is common. Students will deny they did anything wrong and when confronted with evidence blame other students. Educational Considerations Classroom Structure Classroom Management IEP requirements Strategies and Interventions Classroom Structure Employ guided practice and well-organized transitions from activity to activity. Personalize Classroom Structure for High Risk Students Arrange a "check in" time to organize day. Provide quiet spaces in classroom; low stimulus areas for study and test taking. Develop a "system" or code word to let student know when behavior is not appropriate. Arrange for student to leave classroom voluntarily and report to a designated "safe place" when under high stress. Classroom Management Inform pupils of what is expected of them Establish a positive learning climate Provide a meaningful learning experience Avoid threats Demonstrate fairness Build and exhibit self-confidence Recognize positive student attributes Time the recognition of student attributes Use positive modeling Structure the curriculum & classroom environment IEP Requirements The educational programs for children with a behavioral or emotional disturbance need to include attention to providing emotional and behavioral support as well as helping them to master academics, develop social skills, and increase self-awareness, selfcontrol, and self-esteem. For a child whose behavior impedes learning (including the learning of others), the team developing the child’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) needs to consider, if appropriate, strategies to address that behavior, including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports. IEP Requirements Students eligible for special education services under the category of emotional disturbance may have IEPs that include psychological or counseling services. Career education (both vocational and academic) is also a major part of secondary education and should be a part of the transition plan included in every IEP. There is growing recognition that families, as well as their children, need support, respite care, intensive case management, and a collaborative, multi-agency approach to services. (Area Special Education Cooperative, 2009) Strategies and Interventions Determine what specific intervention strategy should be employed. Identify the system necessary to teach or reinforce the presence of alternative, positive, behaviors. At a minimum, consider strategies that: increase student control and choices; increase opportunities for positive attention; increase student's status, self-esteem; match teaching strategies to student strengths; match expected responses and testing methods to student strengths; match physical arrangement and management of classroom to student strengths; increase the student's opportunities to acquire a sense of belonging within her or his school or community; expand and build upon natural supports (e.g., friendships). Strategies and Interventions Determine responses in the event challenging behavior is exhibited. Ignore challenging behaviors and redirect student back to desired activity Provide feedback (i.e., verbal reprimand) Redirect student Revoke privileges Have student make restitution De-escalate situation Protect people and property from harm. (The Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders, 2003) Assessment of Progress List services that will be provided to address the student's needs in relation to the function of behaviors and the stated goals. Determine data collection methods and frequency of data gathering to document that the plan is being used and how effective it is proving to be. Establish criteria to evaluate whether the plan should continue (i.e., is working) or have major revisions (i.e., is not working). Assessment of Progress Response to Intervention involves documenting a change in behavior or learning as a result of intervention High quality/scientifically based core classroom instruction School wide screening / early identification Tiered research-based interventions aligned with student needs Problem solving teams Data-based decision making Progress monitoring /ongoing student assessment Parent/Family Involvement (Richter, 2008) Bibliography Area Special Education Cooperative, . (2009). Ebd. Retrieved from http://www.asec.net/tses/Disability%20Criteria/ebd.htm Enloe, S. (2009). Emotional behavioral disorders in class. Retrieved from http://www.slc.sevier.org/emoclass.htm National Association of School Psychologists. (2009). Nasp position statement on students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/about_nasp/pospaper_sebd.aspx National Association of Special Education Teachers. (2007). National association of special education teachers: teachers teaching exceptional children. Retrieved from http://www.naset.org/799.0.html Richter, M. (2008, December 11). Sw-pbs and response to intervention: making best use of our resources. Retrieved from http://pbismissouri.org/archives/tier2/Response_To_Intervention_01 0809.doc The Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. (2003). Ccbd. Retrieved from http://www.ccbd.net/ U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2009). Digest of Education Statistics, 2008 (NCES 2009-020), Table 50.