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Sustainable Cities

G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 14 th Edition

Chapter 25

Key Concepts

Distribution of urban and rural populations

Factors determining urban development

Resource and environmental problems in urban areas

Effects of transportation systems on urban growth

Planning and controlling urban growth

Making cities more sustainable and desirable

Urbanization and Urban Growth

Urban areas

Rural areas

Villages

Cities

Urban growth: natural increase and immigration

Push and pull factors

Patterns of Urban Growth

Increasing proportion of population

Great increase in large cities (>1,000,000)

Increasing rapidly in developing counties

Urban growth slower in developed countries

Poverty in urban areas increasing

Urbanization in the US

Migration to large central cities

Migration from cities to suburbs

Migration from north and east to south and west

Migration from urban to rural areas

Spatial patterns of development

(see Fig. 25-4 p. 566)

Major Urban Regions in the US

Fig. 25-4 p. 566

Impacts of Urban Sprawl

Fig. 25-6 p. 567

Urban Resource and Environmental Problems

Air and water pollution; waste management

Reduction in vegetation

Importation of food, energy, and materials

Noise pollution

Climate impacts: urban heat islands

Impacts on surrounding rural areas

Urban Areas: Inputs and Outputs

Fig. 25-8 p. 569

Urban Poor in Developing Countries

Slums

Squatter settlements

Shantytowns

Illegal settlements

Poverty and unemployment

Transportation and Urban Development

Individual transit

Mass transit

Buses

Trains

Automobiles (See Pro/Con p. 572-573)

Urban Land-Use Planning and Control

Land-use planning

Property taxes

Zoning

Smart growth

Urban growth boundary

Greenbelts

Cluster development

(See Fig. 25-18 p. 579)

Greenbelts

Fig. 25-17 p. 579

Cluster Housing

Fig. 25-18 p. 579

Solutions: Making Urban Areas More Livable and Sustainable

New cities and towns

Ecocity (green city)

Trees and climate-specific landscaping

People-oriented

High energy efficiency

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