Chapter 14: Networks of Cities PowerPoint Lecture Slides

Unit 14: Networks of Cities
Two examples
of network flow
between cities
in the US:
(top), and
business travel
flow (bottom)
Case Study - Box 14.2
• Demonstrate the distinctions between local, national,
regional and world cities in the urban hierarchy
• Discuss how markets (and the range and threshold for
goods) creates a network of cities
• Explain the regional variations in the global network of cities
and how it leads to distinctive regional urban geography
• Examine national networks of primacy and rank-size
Regional Networks
• First urban networks were periodic markets
with travelling vendors
• With more demand, traders could stay in one
location and create fixed markets
• Towns were distributed regularly to provide
rural areas access to markets
A modern roadside market in Jamaica.
(Fig 14.1)
Periodic markets seek
to either minimize
travel for vendors by
bringing them closer
together (A), or
maximize demand by
spreading markets
across space (B).
(Fig 14.2)
A fixed market in Curaçao. (Fig 14.3)
Central Place Theory (Walter Christaller)
• Range: distance consumers are willing to travel
• Threshold: minimum population to support a
particular business
• Complementary region: area surrounding a city
where that city dominates the sale of particular
• Theory explained location of agricultural
settlements, but the ideas of theory important
of understanding relationship in urban
Market areas in central place systems.
(Fig 14.5)
The Galpin model demonstrates a regular
distribution of towns surrounded by circular
complementary regions, which may overlap.
(Fig 14.4)
National Networks
• Rank Size distribution (Zipf’s Law)
• Regular distribution of big cities
• In large countries, like China, India, USA
• Primate Distribution
• Imbalanced distribution; focused on 1 city
• Disproportionately large and important
• 3x the size of the next two biggest cities
• Thailand: Bangkok produces almost half on
the national GDP
• Some imperial centers, some colonial hubs
Plotting US city population against
expected values according to Zipf’s
Law. (Fig 14.6)
Global Urban Networks
Globalization and World Cities research network
collected data on 100 global advanced producer
service firms and identified a global urban hierarchy
(Fig 14.8)
London and New York are atop all urban hierarchy
schemes as global cities
New centers of metropolitan modernity are emerging
in the Far East
Dense networks of interpersonal contact and centers
of important social capital are vital to international
Research shows global network based on flows—
migration, capital and culture
• Flows transform the systems
The global urban network according to
(Fig 14.8)
• Cities in the urban hierarchy can be differentiated into local,
national, regional and world cities
• Markets (and the range and threshold for goods) create a
network of cities
• Regional variations in the global network of cities lead to
distinctive regional urban geography
• National urban networks dominated by one city display
primacy and countries with many large cities follow a ranksize distribution