Geopolitics PPT

“A branch of geography which considers
the strategic value of land and sea area in
the context of the national economic and
military power and ambitions.”
“The study of the interplay between
international political relations and the
territorial/environmental context in which
they occur.”
“Another name for political geography.”
“The study of how geographic
considerations influence long-run
international relations.”
“The use of geographic information and
concepts to attain political goals.”
Examples of Geopolitics
Manifest Destiny
 19th century
 Mexican War
Monroe Doctrine
 European Colonies
 Effectiveness
○ US Civil War
○ Cinco de Mayo
Roosevelt Corollary
Friedrich Ratzel
Organic Theory of
 “lebensraum”
 Influence on WWII
Sir Halford Mackinder
Heartland Theory
 Pivot area
 Geopolitik
 Karl Haushofer
 German Exploitation
of Mackinder’s ideas
Nicolas Spykman
Rimland Theory
 Containment
 Domino Theory
 Cold War
○ Korea (1950)
○ Vietnam (1964)
○ Afghanistan (1980)
Bush Doctrine
Two main pillars are
identified for the
 1. preemptive strikes
against potential
enemies, and
 2. promoting
democratic regime
Bush Doctrine
preventive war,
depose foreign regimes that represented a potential or
perceived threat
a policy of spreading democracy around the world, especially
in the Middle East
pursue U.S. military interests in a unilateral way