Howard -Sheth
Nicosia Model
Engel-BlackwellKollat (EBK) Model
Inputs: These are the variables like the stimuli towards the products like
the physical attributes, visual or verbal attributes, information served
by the social environment and the family, reference groups and the
social class.
Perceptual and Learning Constructs: These are the psychological
variables and are treated simply as the ideas like the fact that
perceptual ambiguity; if customers are sure about the meaning of
information gained from the environment or perceptual bias; if the
customer distorts the information given to him according to his needs
and wants and the learning constructs include the goals of the
customer in the information and the criteria in evaluations and the
intentions to buy.
Outputs: This includes the final act of purchase like the attention, brand
comprehension, attitudes, intentions and finally the act of purchase.
External variables: These are the relevant external which includes the
importance of the purchase, consumer personality traits, time
pressure and the availability of the funds.
Francesco Nicosia was one of the first to develop a Consumer Behavior
model and shift the act of purchase to a more complex model. He
represented a model in a flow chart format resembling steps in a
computer program. This model is representing a situation where a
firm is designing a communication (products, ads etc.) to be delivered
to the consumers and in turn the consumers responses influence
subsequent actions of the firm. The model shows the following;
FIELD 1:- Attributes / Psychological Attributes, Outputs
FIELD 2:- The consumer’s search for the evaluation, firm’s output and
other available alternatives
FIELD 3:-Consumer’s motivated act of Purchase
FIELD 4:- The consumer’s storage or the use of the product
These all have been assuming that there are no predispositions of the
consumer with the company. In field2 the consumer will get
motivated to gain information searching internal memory for the
information or externally that the customer visits the stores whereas
in the field 3 the firm receives a feedback. Field 4 is the experience
and that may change from time to time.
The EKB (Engel, Blackwell, Kolat Model) of the consumer Behavior was
originally developed in the 1968 serves as the framework for
organizing the fast growing body of the knowledge concerning
consumer behavior.
>> Information Input: These are what the marketers and non marketers
feed in the consumers for the information processing may also be
called as the Problem Recognition Stage.
>> Information Processing: This stage includes the exposure, attention,
comprehension, acceptance and retention and the final processing
to the long term memory
>> Decision Process Stage: This is the difference between the ideal
desired state and the actual state of the affairs, for what they believe
shall be the right thing to buy for them
>> Variable Influencing the Decision Process: These include the
individual differences that include the motives, values , lifestyle,
personality, attitudes and the environmental influences are the
culture, social class, family and the reference groups. Situational
variables like the consumer’s financial condition may also influence
the decision making process.
Thank you!!!