Chapter 14: Respiratory System

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CHAPTER 14: RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

SSTRIDE 2010 Brain Bowl

Alrick Drummond, M1

FUNCTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Major Functions

Air distribution

Gas exchange

Other functions

Filter, warm and humidify air

Is also associated with olfaction (smell) and speech

PATH OF AIR (FROM NOSE TO LUNGS)

Nose

Pharynx

Larynx

Trachea

Lungs

UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

After the nose receives the air

Head colds affect this part of the respiratory system (Nose, larynx and pharynx)

The pharynx if broken up into different sections

Nasopharynx

Receives air for surroundings

Contains the opening to the auditory (eustachian) tube

Help keep pressure equal between the middle and external ear

Oropharynx

• Receives food and air from the mouth

The epiglottis stops food from getting into lungs

Laryngopharynx

• Carries air to the trachea towards the lungs

Contains the vocal cords

UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

The trachea begins right under the larynx

The trachea

Exterior-is made of C shaped cartilage with soft tissue in between them

Interior-is lined with respiratory epithelium

*cool fact* the esophagus is right behind the trachea and this is why it has C shaped cartilage instead of full rings

PATH OF AIR (INSIDE THE LUNG)

Main bronchi

Bronchial branches

Bronchiole

Terminal sacs

Alveoli

PATH OF AIR INSIDE THE LUNGS

The bronchi continue to branch out into smaller tubes inside the lungs

These branches are part of the respiratory tree

(remember branches of bronchi make the respiratory

tree)

These branches become bronchioles and will end with little elastic sacs called alveoli

ALVEOLI

These alveolar sacs are where gas exchange happens via diffusion into the capillaries

Gas exchange happens in type I cells in the alveoli

Oxygen then binds to the hemoglobin in blood to make

oxyhemoglobin which can carry oxygen to the cells

Type 2 cels make surfactant, a substance that prevents alveoli for collapsing and reduces surface tension when we breath

BREATHING MUSCLES

Eupnea-normal breathing

Inspiration

Diaphragm

External intercostal muscles

Expiration

Internal intercostal

Abdominal muscles

*remember that more muscles are used when a person is breathing heavily

LUNG CAPACITY

Tidal volume (TV)- the amount of air we normally breath

Vital capacity (VC)-the largest amount of air we can breath out at one time

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)-air you can force out after tidal volume

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)-air you can force in after tidal volume

OTHER IMPORTANT FACTS

The epithelium of the lung cells contain an important structure called cilia. These structures can be paralyzed in cigarette smokers

There are areas in the blood vessels that detect the amount of oxygen in the blood

Carotid body (in the neck)

Aortic bodies (in the chest)

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