Computational Models of Discourse Analysis Carolyn Penstein Rosé Language Technologies Institute/ Human-Computer Interaction Institute Warm-Up What is your frame-style analysis of this interaction? What frames do you see, and what is the evidence that evokes those frames in your mind? Questions to consider: What is a metaphor according to Lakoff, and how does that relate to Tannen’s notion of a frame? Is metaphor a linguistic construct? Or would you characterize it differently? Do metaphors structure language, or do they reflect a structure that arises from something else? How do the ideas of metaphor and frame relate to the other linguistic analysis frameworks we have discussed? How do metaphors structure experience? How does something become a metaphor we live by? At what point does the idea of a metaphor as a structuring device become vacuous? Tannen: …people approach the world not What is a frame? as naïve, blank-slate receptacles who take in stimuli as they exist in some independent Is thereandanything more specific objective way, but rather as experienced and sophisticated veterans about what a frame is than the of perception who have stored their prior experiences organized mass” and notion as of“an expectation? who see events and objects in the world in relation Howto one do another we find evidence and in relation to of their prior experience. This prior expectations in a text? experience or organized knowledge then takes form of expectations theHeist the Examples from theabout Pear world, and in the vast majority of cases, the movie example world, being a systematic place, confirms expectations, saving the individual these What was different between the trouble of figuring things out anew all thethe time.frames evoked in the American recountings of the versus the Greek ones? What is the danger in this pointed out movie by Wantanabe wrt intercultural communication? How does the notion of a frame inform our analysis of turn taking? What is a turn: Syntactic units: sentences, clauses, noun phrases Prosody: intonation tells us where we are in “the arc” of communicating an idea Indicators of whose turn is next: gaze, names, etc. Projectability: we need to be able to identify places where control over the floor could shift – doesn’t mean it will shift. Connection with last time: Student quote: I guess what I'm trying to say is that one feature of the interpersonal dependence should be their relative rank (I understand that this is hard because a younger sister may be the boss of an older brother in the workplace, but they are ranked higher in some cultures at home). How does this connect with the idea of framing we see in the Watanabe chapter? What would be the frame spin on this? Student quote: Of course, then the problem becomes, how do we define what these roles are? When do we assign someone to one role or another? When do we allow people to shift from one role to another? What happens when multiple people are acting in the same role at the same time? All of these things make that modeling enormously complex and probably reliant on far more data than is actually available, especially annotated. … More Discussion What is a metaphor according to Lakoff, and how does that relate to Tannen’s notion of a frame? Is metaphor a linguistic construct? Or would you characterize it differently? Are there aspects of frames that don’t fit the idea of a metaphor? If it’s not linguistic, how do we use it? Do metaphors structure language, or do they reflect a structure that arises from something else? How do the ideas of metaphor and frame relate to the other linguistic analysis frameworks we have discussed? For next time Questions?