Anatomy & Physiology Tissue Review

Anatomy & Physiology
Tissue Review
October 2012
General Characteristics of
Epithelial Tissue
General Characteristics of
Epithelial Tissue
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Cells tightly packed together; very little
intercellular space
Therefore, avascular
Free surface
Basement membrane anchors to connective
tissue below
Regenerates readily, if close to nutrient
source (if avascular, how does it get
nourished?)
Terms to understand
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Simple
Stratified
Cell shapes
Microvilli
Cilia
Goblet cells
Epithelium: identify by
location
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Lines air sacs of lungs:
Lines respiratory passages:
Lines bladder & urinary passages:
Lines mouth, throat, anal canal, vagina:
Forms outer layer of skin:
Lines digestive tract:
Forms most glands:
Epithelium: identify by
function
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Protection
Modified for excellent absorption
Secretion
Can distend, then return to original
shape/layers
Fabulous for diffusion
Glandular epithelium
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EXOCRINE
Has ducts to secrete
product to free surface
Sweat, oil, milk
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ENDOCRINE
Ductless
Empties product
directly into
bloodstream
hormones
Connective tissue (in general)
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Cells far apart from each other
Intercellular space filled with FIBERS &
MATRIX
Vascular, with exceptions (dense regular &
cartilage)
Protects, connects, binds, supports
Possible fibers in matrix
1.
2.
3.
COLLAGEN: thick, white, tough, very
strong
ELASTIC: thin, yellow, stretchy
RETICULAR: thin, delicate strands of
collage; from delicate framework/web-like
support
Which connective tissue?
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Universal glue; contains all 3 fibers; waterygel matrix
Hard matrix made of calcium salts
Parallel bundles of collagen; tendons &
ligaments
Rubbery matrix; glassy appearance;
connects ribs to breastplate
Fluid matrix
More connective tissues
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Thick, cushion; shock absorber; intervertebral
disks
Delicate framework supporting lymph nodes
and bone marrow
Strong; interwoven collagen fibers; vascular;
dermis of skin
Fat cells are dominant in this specialized
areolar tissue
Compare dense regular &
dense irregular fibrous conn.
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REGULAR
Parallel bundles of
collagen, tightly packed
Avascular
Forms tendons &
ligaments
•
•
•
•
IRREGULAR
Interwoven mesh of
collagen fibers; lots
more space
Vascular
Forms dermis of the
skin
More terms to understand
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Tendon
Ligament
Adipocyte
Chondrocyte
Osteocyte
Fibroblast
Neuron
Muscle tissue: skeletal,
cardiac, or smooth?
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Striated/banded
Non-striated/banded
Intercalated disks
Spindle-shaped
Multinucleate
Uninucleate
Heart
Walls of hollow organs
Moves the body
Muscle and nervous tissue
functions
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Muscle: contract to produce movement
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Nervous (1) irritability—can be stimulated
(2) conductivity—can conduct an
electrochemical impulse
Inflammation—the 4 Cardinal
Signs
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Edema---tissue swelling due to increased
flow of tissue fluid to injury—why?
Rubor—
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Calor—
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Dolor--
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Tissue healing
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Which tissue regenerates the easiest?
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Which tissue will never regenerate?
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Which tissues are slow to regenerate?
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Which tissues will be replaced with scar
tissue?
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Describe the general characteristics of
connective tissue.
How does connective tissue differ from other
tissues as to relative amount of cells and
intercellular substance?
Describe the three types of fibers which might
be found in connective tissue.
Identify the connective tissue
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Composes tendons and ligaments
Composes skeleton
“glues” epithelium with basement membrane
to other structures
Fluid matrix
Rubbery, smooth glassy matrix
Composes the dermis of the skin
Identify the connective tissue
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Areolar with large deposits of adipocytes
Forms stroma of the liver, bone marrow
Which cartilage:
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Framework of the ear
Intervertebral disks
Meniscus of knee
Covers ends of long bones
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Loose (areolar) tissue, bone, cartilage, and
blood are different types of connective tissue.
Explain why their physical characteristics
differ so much.
What is the function of fibroblasts?
Name the major types of cartilage. Describe
their differences and similarities.
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Joints such as the elbow, shoulder, and knee
contain considerable amounts of cartilage
and fibrous connective tissue. How does this
relate to the fact that joint injuries are often
very slow to heal?
A group of disorders called collagenous
diseases are characterized by deterioration of
connective tissues. Why would you expect
such diseases to produce widely varying
symptoms.
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